Main Article Content
A study on the occurrence and conservation measures of the Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus Meyer, 1794) was carried out between July 2012 and March 2014, through direct visual observation and sign survey.Â This study was an opportunistic finding during biodiversity survey of the Inani Reserved Forest in Coxâ€™s Bazar District of Bangladesh.Â The Indian leopard is a less known carnivore species, which has no recent confirmed record in Bangladesh.Â Direct observation in one place and the pugmark of leopards were identified from three places of the Inani Reserved Forest.Â Maximum and minimum length, and width of the pugmark were 8.7cm and 8.2cm, and 8.7cm and 7.1cm respectively; range of length of heel pad was 5.5cm to 5.0cm.Â There was only one sighting record and roaring/growling like haw-a-haw-ahaw howling was also heard once during the field visits.Â Illegal encroachments, fire, fuel and timber wood collections, beetle-leaf vineyard, and wildlife poaching are major identified threats for the conservation of the biodiversity of Inani Reserved Forest.Â
Authors own the copyright to the articles published in JoTT. This is indicated explicitly in each publication. The authors grant permission to the publisher Wildlife Information Liaison Development (WILD) Society to publish the article in the Journal of Threatened Taxa. The authors recognize WILD as the original publisher, and to sell hard copies of the Journal and article to any buyer. JoTT is registered under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY), which allows authors to retain copyright ownership. Under this license the authors allow anyone to download, cite, use the data, modify, reprint, copy and distribute provided the authors and source of publication are credited through appropriate citations (e.g., Son et al. (2016). Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 8953–8969. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.27188.8.131.5253-8969). Users of the data do not require specific permission from the authors or the publisher.
Ahsan, M.F. (1984). Study of Primates in Bangladesh: Determination of Population Status and Distribution of Non-human Primates in Bangladesh with Emphasis on Rhesus Monkey. MPhil Thesis. University of Dhaka, Dhaka, xiii+148pp+viii.
Ahmed, A.T.A., S.M.H. Kabir, M. Ahmad, Z.U. Ahmed, Z.N.T. Begum, M.A. Hassan & M. Khondker (eds.) (2009). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh. Vol. 27. Mammals. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, 263pp.
Akter, S., M.S. Islam, M.P. Rana & M. Alamgir (2009). Impact of forest and non-forest villagers on Ukhia and Inani Forest Range under Coxâ€™s Bazar (South) Forest Division, Bangladesh. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Science 46(1): 13â€“22.
Asmat, G.S.M. (2009). Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758), pp. 114â€“115. In: Ahmed, A.T.A., S.M.H. Kabir, M. Ahmad, Z.U. Ahmed, Z.N.T. Begum, M.A. Hassan & M. Khondker (eds.). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of
Bangladesh. Vol. 27. Mammals. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, 264pp
Athreya, V., M. Odden, J.D.C. Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy & U. Karanth (2011). Translocation as a Tool for Mitigating Conflict with Leopards in Human-Dominated Landscapes of India. Conservation Biology 25(1): 133â€“141; http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01599.x
Athreya, V., M. Odden, J.D.C. Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy & U. Karanth (2013). Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India. PLoS ONE 8(3): e57872; http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057872
Chowdhury, H., M.A. Halim, M.D. Mia, N. Muhammed & M. Koike (2007). Biodiversity use through harvesting faunal resources from forests by the Mro tribes in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 3(1): 56â€“62.
Harihar, A., B. Pandav & S.P. Goyal (2011). Responses of leopard Panthera pardus to the recovery of a tiger Panthera tigris population. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 806â€“814; http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01981.x
Henschel, P. & J. Ray (2003). Leopards in African Rainforests: Survey and Monitoring Technique. WCS Global Carnivores Programs, 50pp.
IUCN Bangladesh (2003). Bangladesher Bipanno Bannoprani (in Bangla), IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Dhaka, xiv+294pp.
Kabir, M.T. (2012). Primates of Coxâ€™s Bazar District of Bangladesh with Special Reference to Ecology of the Dwindling Long-tailed Macaque. Unpublished MPhil thesis, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, xv+94pp.
Khan, M.A.R. (1982). Wildlife of Bangladesh: A Checklist. The University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 173pp.
Khan, M.A.R. (2010). Wildlife of Bangladesh: A Checklist (from Amphibia to Mammalia) with Bengali Names. Shahitya Prakash, Dhaka, 128pp.
Khan, M.M.H. (2008). Protected Areas of Bangladesh - A Guide to Wildlife. Nishorgo Program, Bangladesh Forest Department, Dhaka, 304pp.
Khan, M.A.S.A., M.A. Uddin & C.E. Haque (2012). Rural livelihoods of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh and their impacts on forests: The case of Teknaf Wildlife Sanctuary.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236903099. Downloaded on 11
Odden, M., V. Athreya, S. Rattan & J.D.C. Linnell (2014). Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared Leopards in human dominated landscapes in India. PLoS ONE 9(11): e112044; http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112044
Pocock, R.I. (1939). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia- Vol. 1. Taylor and Francis, London, 463pp.
Rahman, M.A. & A. Mannan (2011). Challenge of forest law enforcement in Bangladesh with special reference to proposed Inani National Park. Proceedings of the First Bangladesh Forestry Congress, 84-87pp.
Ramakrishnan, U., R.G. Coss & N.W. Pelkey (1999). Tiger decline caused by the reduction of large ungulate prey: evidence from a study of leopard diets in southern India. Biological Conservation 89(2): 113â€“120; http://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00159-1
Sanei, A., M. Zakaria, E. Yusof & M. Roslan (2011). Estimation of leopard population size in a secondary forest within Malaysiaâ€™s capital agglomeration using unsupervised classification of pugmarks. Tropical Ecology 52(2): 209â€“217.
Sarker, M.S.U. & N.J. Sarker (1988). Wildlife of Bangladesh (A Systematic list with Status, Distribution and Habitat). The Rico Printer, Dhaka, 69pp.
Stein, A.B., V. Athreya, P. Gerngross, G. Balme, P. Henschel, U. Karanth, D.
Miquelle, S. Rostro-Garcia, J.F. Kamler, A. Laguardia, I. Khorozyan & A. Ghoddousi (2016).Â Panthera pardus. (errata version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T15954A102421779.Â Downloaded onÂ 17 May 2017.
Sunquist, M. & F. Sunquist (2002). Wild Cats of the World. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 452pp.
Talwar, R. & A. Usmani (2005). Reading Pugmark - A Pocket Book for Forest. Guards. Published by Tiger & Wildlife Programme, WWF India, 54pp.
Uphyrkina, O., W.E. Johnson, H. Quigley, D. Miquelle, L. Marker, M. Bush & S.J. Oâ€™Brien (2001). Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, Panthera pardus. Molecular Ecology 10:Â 2617â€“2633; http://doi.org/10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01350.x