Journal of Threatened Taxa | | 26 July 2022 | 14(7): 21467–21469



ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print)

#7891 | Received 21 February 2022 | Final received 25 April 2022 | Finally accepted 29 June 2022



Cetrelia isidiata (Asahina) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. (Parmeliaceae) – an addition to the Indian lichen biota


Gaurav K. Mishra 1, Pooja Maurya 2 & Dalip K. Upreti 3


1,2,3 Lichenology Laboratory, Plant Diversity Systematics and Herbarium Division, CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute,

Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226001, India.

2 AcSIR- Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201002, India.

1 (corresponding author), 2, 3


Abstract: Cetrelia isidiata (Asahina) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb., is characterized by the presence of isidia, pseudocyphellae on thallus, and containing anziaic acid. The species is reported here as an addition to the Indian lichen biota from Arunachal Pradesh. A detailed description along with key to isidiate species of the genus known is provided.


Keywords: Ascomycetes, biodiversity, lichenized, taxonomy.



Editor: Anonymity requested.   Date of publication: 26 July 2022 (online & print)


Citation: Mishra, G.K., P. Maurya & D.K. Upreti (2022). Cetrelia isidiata (Asahina) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. (Parmeliaceae) – an addition to the Indian lichen biota.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(7): 21467–21469.


Copyright: © Mishra et al. 2022. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.


Funding: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-OLP101B & The University Grants Commission for the award of UGC-JRF.


Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.


Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to the director of the CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow for providing laboratory facilities under the project number OLP101. The author P. Maurya would like to thanks to the University Grants Commission for award of UGC-JRF. The manuscript number is CSIR-NBRI-MS/2022/02/09.




The genus Cetrelia W.L.  Culb. & C.F. Culb. (Parmeliaceae) is represented by 18 species from the world Randlane et al. (2013), of which 10 species are reported from India (Mishra & Upreti 2015). According to Randlane & Saag (2004) the isidiate species of Cetrelia show their restricted distribution in Asia whereas sorediate species are found in European and Asian countries. Culberson & Culberson (1968) provided a monograph on the genera Cetrelia and clearly mentioned that Cetrelia isidiata might be mistaken from C. pseudolivetorum in colour spot test as both species produce a pink colour in C reaction, therefore, thin layer chromatography (TLC) test will be desirable for the recognition of olivetoric and anziaic acids. Cetrelia braunsiana (Müll. Arg.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb., and C. pseudolivetorum are isidiate species of Cetrelia earlier reported from India (Singh & Sinha 2010).


Materials and Methods

The present study is based on the Cetrelia specimen preserved in the herbarium of CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (LWG). The specimen was examined morphologically, anatomically, and chemically. Thin hand-cut sections of thalli were mounted in water or cotton blue and 5% KOH and observed under a compound microscope. For chemical spot tests the usual reagents of K, C, KC, and P were used. TLC was performed in solvent system A (Toluene: 1, 4-dioxane: acetic acid: 180: 60: 8 ml), following the technique of Orange et al. (2001). The specimen was identified up to the species level with the help of publications of Mishra & Upreti (2015) and Culberson & Culberson (1968).



Cetrelia isidiata was reported earlier from China, Japan, and Taiwan (Randlane & Saag 2004). It is a new record for Indian lichen biota recorded for the first time in Arunachal Pradesh. A detailed taxonomic description of the species is provided together with illustration, key to the isidiate species and comparative characteristic features of Indian isidate species of the genus Cetrelia (Table 1).


Cetrelia isidiata (Asahina) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb.

(Image 1, Figure 1)

Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 34: 510 (1968).

= Cetrelia sanguinea Schaer. f. isidiata Asahina, Nov. Fl. Jap. 5: 73 (1939).

       Thallus foliose, corticolous, loosely attached to the substratum, 5–19 cm across; lobes 0.5–1.5 cm broad; upper surface grayish or light brownish, pseudocyphellate; pseudocyphellae tiny and infrequent; isidia present on mostly margin of lobes, simple, globose or sometime coralloid or poorly developed; lower surface black, margins brown or concolorous to upper surface; rhizines black; medulla white. Apothecia and pycnidia not seen.

Chemistry: Medulla K–, C+ pink or red, KC–, P−; anziaic acid as major compound, ±atranorin.

Remarks: Cetrelia isidiata morphologically exhibits its similarity with C. braunsiana and C. pseudolivetorum but differs in presence of anziaic acid in the thallus. The species is also close to C. sanguinea (Schaer.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb., in having anziaic acid in the thallus but differs by lacking isidia. In India, the species is found growing on bark of trees at an elevation of 2,966 m in Eastern Himalayan state of Arunachal Pradesh.

Specimen examined: 15-037820 (LWG), 16.vii.2015, India: Arunachal Pradesh, Tawang district, around monastery, on bark, 27.585N, 91.857E, 2,966 m, coll. R. Bajpai.


A key to the isidiate species of Cetrelia


Medulla C+ red or pink and thallus containing olivetoric or anziaic acids ….….….…............…. 2

1a. Medulla C- and thallus containing alectoronic and α-collatolic acids ………...…… C. braunsiana Isidia poorly developed and anziaic acid present in the thallus …….. C. isidiata

2a. Isidia well developed and olivetoric acid present in the thallus ……. C. pseudolivetorum



Table 1. Comparative characteristic features of Indian isidate species of the genus Cetrelia.


Name of the species

Cetrelia braunsiana

Cetrelia isidiata

Cetrelia pseudolivetorum

Thallus size

8–12 cm across

5–19 cm across

5–15 cm across


5–15 mm wide

0.5–1.5 cm wide

0.5–1.5 cm wide

Upper surface

Gray or ashy-white

Grayish or light brownish

Grayish or grayish-white or uniformly light brownish or tan in old herbarium specimens


Simple, marginal to sometimes laminal; often coralloid

Mostly on margin of lobes; simple, globose or sometime coralloid or poorly developed

Along margin and on surface; simple or coralloid, turning into dorsiventral dissected lobules


Punctiform to irregular, rarely more than 1 mm broad

Tiny and infrequent

Punctiform or slightly elongate

Lower surface

Brown to grayish, the margins brown or grayish like the colour of the upper surface

Black, margins brown or concolorous to upper surface

Black, margins brown or concolorous to upper surface


Rare, submarginal, perforate, about 0.5 mm broad, asci 8 spored, ascospores ovoid, 12–15 × 8–9 μm.




Rare, marginal, black, pruinose; conidia 1 × 4–6 μm, rod-shaped



Spot test

Medulla K–, C–, KC+ pink, PD–

Medulla K–, C+ pink or red, KC–, P−

Medulla K–, C+ pink or red, KC– or KC+ pink to red, P−


Alectoronic and α-collatolic acids (as major substance), ±atranorin.

Anziaic acid (as major compound), ±atranorin

Olivetoric (acid as major compound), ±atranorin.

Distribution in India

Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal

Arunachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal



For figure & image - - click here (for full PDF)




Culberson, W.L. & C.F. Culberson (1968). The lichen genera Cetrelia and Platismatia (Parmeliaceae), pp. 449–558. In: Systematic Plant Studies. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Mishra, G.K. & D.K. Upreti (2015). The lichen genus Cetrelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in India. Phytotaxa 236(3): 201–214.

Orange, A., P.W. James & F.J. White (2001). Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. British Lichen Society, 101 pp.

Randlane, T. & A. Saag (2004). Distribution patterns of some pri-mary and secondary cetrarioid species. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 34(1): 359–376.

Randlane, T., A. Saag, A. Thell & T. Ahti (2013). Third world list of cetrarioid lichens- in a new database form, with amended phylogenetic and type information. Mycologie 34(1): 79–84.

Singh, K.P. & G.P. Sinha (2010). Indian Lichens: An Annotated Checklist. Botanical Survey of India, 572 pp.