Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 June 2022 | 14(6): 21199–21212

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.7840.14.6.21199-21212

#7840 | Received 21 January 2022 | Final received 27 March 2022 | Finally accepted 19 May 2022

 

 

Butterflies of Eravikulam National Park and its environs in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

 

Kalesh Sadasivan 1  ,Toms Augustine 2 , Edayillam Kunhikrishnan 3  & Baiju Kochunarayanan 4

 

1,4 TNHS Lepidoptera Research Group (TLRG), Travancore Nature History Society (TNHS), Mathrubhumi Road, Vanchiyoor, Trivandrum,

Kerala 695035, India.

1 Greeshmam, BN439, Bapuji Nagar, Medical College Post, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695011, India.

2 Pathippallil House, Poovarani PO, Kottayam, Kerala 686577, India.

3 TC1/2021, Jayamanju, Edassery Nagar, Kumarapuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695011, India.

4 Sreerangam, Puravoorkonam, Karakulam Post, Kerala 695564, India.

1 kaleshs2002in@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 tomsaugustine@gmail.com, 3 ekunhi@gmail.com, 4 baijupaluvally@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: The Eravikulam National Park (ENP) holds the largest remaining pristine patches of southern montane wet temperate forests and southern montane wet temperate grasslands of peninsular India. The study shows that ENP harbours 198 species of butterflies, constituting 60.73% of the butterflies recorded from Kerala and 59.10% of butterflies observed in Western Ghats (WG). Thirty-five species of butterflies seen in ENP have some level of endemicity associated with them and 22 of them (52.38%) are strictly endemic to WG. Twenty-seven species are under the schedules of Indian Wildlife Act 1972 (WPA) and its amendments. This National Park has montane grassland-Shola dependent super-endemics like Neptis palnica and Telinga davisoni. ENP also holds Parantica nilgiriensis a Near Threatened species and another 11 Western Ghats endemics, namely, Telinga davisoni, T. oculus, Ypthima chenu, Y. ypthimoides, Arnetta mercara, Baracus hampsoni, B. subditus, Thoressa astigmata, T. evershedi, Oriens concinna, and Caltoris canaraica, which are primary grass feeders. Eravikulam, on the Anamalai–High Range–Palni landscape, lies on a major path of the return migration of butterflies to Western Ghats before the north-east monsoons. Although well-protected, the ENP has anthropogenic pressures from tea estates surrounding it, mammal-oriented management practices like controlled burning of primary grasslands, and natural forest fires, that can significantly affect the invertebrate fauna especially montane grassland shola-dependent butterflies.

 

Keywords: Checklist, Endemic, grasslands, IUCN, Lepidoptera, shola, WPA.

 

Abbreviations: ENP—Eravikulam National Park | KFD—Kerala Forest Department | MWD—Munnar Wildlife Division | TNHS—Travancore Nature History Society | IUCN—The International Union for Conservation of Nature | WG—Western Ghats | WPA—Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.

 

 

Editor: George Mathew, Emeritus Scientist, Kerala Forest Research Institute (Retd.), Peechi, India.     Date of publication: 26 June 2022 (online & print)

 

Citation: Sadasivan, K., T. Augustine, E. Kunhikrishnan & B. Kochunarayanan (2022). Butterflies of Eravikulam National Park and its environs in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(6): 21199–21212. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.7840.14.6.21199-21212

 

Copyright: © Sadasivan et al. 2022. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Kalesh Sadasivan works on natural history of Western Ghats, and is primarily interested in the ecology, taxonomy and distribution of butterflies, odonates, cicadas and ants. Toms Augustine is a naturalist interested in birds, butterflies and odonates of Western Ghats especially their distribution patterns. E. Kunhikrishnan is a retired faculty of Zoology, who has worked extensively on natural history and conservation of Western Ghats, and is a pioneer in butterfly research in Kerala. Baiju, K. is a research associate in TNHS working on butterflies of Kerala and their lifecycles.

 

Author contributions: KS worked on the primary concept of this paper, did field surveys and drafted the Manuscript. TA helped with field surveys and editing of MS. EK shared filed data and made comments on the MS. BK helped with field surveys and made edits on the MS.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the Kerala Forest Department for permissions for surveys and the members of Travancore Nature History Society (TNHS), Trivandrum, for their field assistance and support for the work.

 

 

Introduction

 

The Eravikulam National Park (ENP), was established in 1978. ENP with an area of 97 km2, is located in the High Ranges (Kannan Devan Hills) of the Munnar landscape of southern Western Ghats (WG) in the Devikulam Taluk of Idukki district, Kerala State (Image 1) between 10.08–10.33 °N & 77.00–77.16 °E. The elevation ranges from 1,200 m on the slopes to 2,695 m at the summit of Anamudi, the highest point in peninsular India. The boundaries of the park extend into Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, and Marayur forest division in the north & east, Mankulam & Munnar forest divisions in the south, and the Anamudi reserve forest under Munnar Forest Division in the west (Anonymous 2012). The terrain is undulating with vegetation mainly of montane wet temperate forests (sholas) and primary grasslands. Annual rainfall varies from 2,000 mm to 5,000 mm, with a short three-month dry season. The major fraction (up to 60%) of precipitation is received from the south-west monsoons. The temperature varies from 10.88±6.55 0C to 23.42±1.3 0C. Frost is a common phenomenon in winter (December–February). ENP is regionally important as a perennial catchment area for east-flowing tributaries of River Pambar, west-flowing tributaries of rivers Periyar and Chalakkudy (Nair 1991; Anonymous 2012). The ENP has good biodiversity with 132 species of birds, 20 species of amphibians, 13 species of reptiles, four species of fish, and 101 species of butterflies (Anonymous 2012). The major vegetation types of the ENP are the southern montane wet temperate forests, southern montane wet temperate grasslands, southern sub-tropical broad-leaved hill forest, southern west coast evergreen forest, and southern tropical moist deciduous forests (Image 2) (Anonymous 2012). The last two forest types are seen along the western and eastern boundaries respectively (Anonymous 2012). The ENP holds the last remaining undisturbed patches of southern montane wet temperate forests and southern montane wet temperate grasslands of Peninsular India (Nair 1991).

Previous works on butterfly diversity of ENP are very few. Ferguson (1891), was probably the first naturalist to work on butterflies of Munnar and the adjoining Pirmed (Peermedu) Plateau. The records from High Range of Munnar of the following species may be seen in his work on butterflies of Travancore: ‘Rohana cambia Moore’ [Rohana parisatis atacinus Fruhstorfer, 1913, Black Prince], ‘Argynnis niphe Linnaeus’ [Argynnis castetsi (Oberthür, 1891), Palni Fritillary], ‘Colias nilagiriensis Felder’ [Colias nilagiriensis Felder & Felder, 1859, Nilgiri Clouded Yellow], ‘Catophaga galena Felder’ [Appias wardii (Moore, 1884), Sahyadri /Lesser/ Ward’s Albatross], and ‘Ismene jaina Moore’ [Burara jaina fergusonii (de Nicéville, [1893]), Sahyadri Orange Awlet]. G.F. Hampson (1888) paid occasional visits to Anamalais, Mudis Hills, and Nelliampathies during his stay in Wayanad-Nilgiris but his major work was on the northern slopes of Nilgiris. No other historical works are specifically available for ENP, though some works are traceable from the adjoining landscapes bordering it. Evans (1910), compiled the first-ever checklist for Palnis and Kodaikanal on the eastern side of the High Range and listed 191 species. In Evans (1910), J. Evershed added a note in on the migration of butterflies in the Palnis landscape. Ugarte & Rodricks (1960) added 54 species to Evans (1910) list, and later Ghorpadé & Kunte (2010), updated the Palni checklist with a compilation of records from 1910 to 1960 and mentioned 310 species. Mathew et al. (2001) though worked on sholas of Idukki, namely, the Mannavan Shola (Anamudi Shola National Park) of the High Range landscape, with 66 species, no mention of the ENP was found. Palot (2012) reported migration of the Indian Dark Cerulean Jamides bochus bochus (Stoll, [1782]) from ENP. Sreekumar et al. (2018), based on a 4-month study provided a preliminary checklist of ENP with 85 species. The management plan of ENP published by the Kerala Forest Department has 101 species mentioned (Anonymous 2012). However, recent systematic surveys by Travancore Nature History Society (TNHS), Munnar Wildlife Division (MWD), and Kerala Forest Department (KFD) have revealed 88 species with some additions (Kalesh 2019). In this paper, we critically evaluate all the available published peer-reviewed records of butterflies from ENP including survey reports. A final checklist of butterflies from ENP is provided in light of our fieldwork since the year 2000.

 

 

Materials and Methods

 

This paper is a critical compilation of the field data of the authors including distribution, larval host and migration, recorded over the last two decades from ENP. The previous literature on butterflies of the region and the adjoining landscapes Ferguson (1891), Hampson (1888), Evans (1910), Ugarte & Rodricks (1960), Ghorpadé & Kunte (2010), Palot (2012), Sreekumar et al. (2018), and (Kalesh 2019) were reviewed. The data logged in the management plan published by the KFD (Anonymous 2012) was also consulted, as well as the reports submitted by TNHS to MWD, KFD on faunal survey of MWD done in 2016, 2018, 2020, and 2021. In addition, the field data of the authors from previous visits to the region was also added. The standard transect methodology (3 km in 3 hours) was employed in field surveys with strategically placed basecamps covering all habitats and elevational gradients of ENP. The core region was assessed in Anamudi, Eravikulam, Poovar, Varattukulam, Rajamalai, Kolukkan, Meenthotty, and Bhadrakali Shola. The boundaries were assessed by visiting Njandala, Pothumala, Chinna-Poovar, Vaguvarai, Lakkam, and Pettimudi. Occasional visits were done to wetter evergreen Edamalayar & Valparai slopes on the western and northern side and eastern dry slopes of Marayur & Chinnar. For all calculation purposes, the butterflies recorded inside the ENP only were considered. The general taxonomic placement and checklists follow Evans (1932 & 1949), Wynter-Blyth (1957), Larsen (1987–88), Gaonkar (1996), Nitin et al. (2018), Kunte et al. (2022), and Sadasivan & Sengupta (2022, in press). Geographical divisions and landscapes follow Sankar (2013) with necessary modifications. The population status was determined in the ENP based on transect data with status as Very Common (VC) if seen in >75% transects, Common (C) if seen in 50­–75%, Not Rare (NR) if is seen in 25–50% transects, Rare (R) in case seen in 5–25%, and Very Rare (VR) if seen in <5% of the transects. Doubtful records and stragglers are mentioned in the discussion part of each family. Detailed analysis of transects with biodiversity indices and conservation values shall be published elsewhere. The Red List status is derived from the IUCN site http://www.iucnredlist.org (IUCN 2021), based on global population assessments. Species with distribution restricted to habitats and subunits of a single landscape are referred to as super-endemics. The Palani Sailor Neptis palnica Eliot, 1969 from High Ranges of southern Western Ghats and Palini Bushbrown Telinga davisoni (Moore, [1891]) from Anjanad valley-Palani region of southern Western Ghats are known only from specific subregions inside the of the Munnar landscape and hence are examples of super-endemics (Image 3).

 

 

Results and Discussion

 

Based on our field work we found 198 valid species records for ENP from our work. Western Ghats has 335 species and Kerala state has 326 species as per the latest estimates (Sadasivan & Sengupta, in press 2022).  Thus, ENP harbours 60.73% of butterflies of Kerala and 59.10% species of butterflies seen in the WG.

Fourteen species of family Papilionidae were recorded out of the 19 (73.69%) species seen in Kerala and WG. The commonest of them was Graphium teredon (Felder & Felder, 1865). None of the endemic papilionids were recorded during the present study. The largest butterfly and the south Indian endemic Troides minos (Cramer, [1779]) was occasionally seen in the western boundaries. Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, 1880, and Pachliopta pandiyana (Moore, 1881) are mentioned in the management plan, but we have no records of this WG endemic, which may be seen in the wetter western slopes. Papilio paris tamilana Moore, 1881 is occasionally seen in the sholas and sub-tropical forests on the west, while Papilio crino Fabricius, 1793 was a very rare straggler from the eastern slopes.

Twenty-five species of Pierids were observed inside the ENP out of the 32 (78.13%) species in Kerala and 34 (73.53%)species in WG. Colias nilagiriensis Felder & Felder, 1859, and Appias wardii (Moore, 1884) were the WG endemics seen in the ENP. Catopsilia pomona pomona (Fabricius, 1775) and Appias (Catophaga) albina swinhoei (Moore, 1905) were the commonest species followed by Eurema laeta laeta (Boisduval, 1836) and Eurema brigitta rubella (Wallace, 1867) in our observation. Eurema (Terias) nilgiriensis (Yata, 1990), Prioneris sita (Felder & Felder, 1865), Appias libythea (Fabricius, 1775), and Pareronia hippia (Fabricius, 1787) are possible stragglers from the low evergreen side on the west (<1,000 m), while Colotis fausta fulvia (Wallace, 1867) is occasionally encountered on the western slopes, and Pareronia hippia (Fabricius, 1787) on the eastern slopes. However, there are no confirmed records of these species inside the ENP.

Nymphalidae had the highest number of butterflies in ENP with 70 species recorded of the 97 (72.16%) in Kerala and 100 (70%) in WG. Amongst the subfamilies of Nymphalidae, Satyrinae topped the numbers with 20 species followed by Limenitidinae (14 species) and Nymphalinae 10 (species). This is not surprising as the major part of the landscape is covered in grass (Poaceae), the larval hostplant of most Satyrines. Ypthima ypthimoides (Moore, 1881), Lethe rohria neelgheriensis (Guérin-Méneville, 1843), Ypthima baldus baldus (Fabricius, 1775), and Ypthima huebneri Kirby, 1871 were the most common Satyrines encountered. Ochlandra sp. dependent species like Zipaetis saitis Hewitson, 1863 and Parantirrhoea marshalli Wood-Mason, 1881 are yet to be found in the ENP but may be seen in the lower western slopes, while the dry species Ypthima ceylonica Hewitson, 1865, may occur on the eastern slopes. Telinga davisoni (Moore, [1891]) Telinga oculus Marshall, 1881, Ypthima ypthimoides (Moore, 1881), and Ypthima chenu (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) are grassland depended endemic Satyrines. Of these, Telinga davisoni (Moore, [1891]) is endemic to the landscape and Palnis. Argynnis castetsi (Oberthür, 1891), Neptis palnica Eliot, 1969 and Parantica nilgiriensis (Moore, 1877) are montane temperate shola Nymphalid endemics. Charaxes psaphon imna Butler, 1870, Charaxes schreiber wardii (Moore, 1896), Idea malabarica (Moore, 1877), Kallima horsfieldii Kollar, [1844], Cethosia mahratta Moore, 1872, and Dophla evelina laudabilis Swinhoe, 1890, are reported on the western lower slopes, but not inside the ENP, while Byblia ilithyia (Drury, [1773]) and Symphaedra nais (Forster, 1771) are rare stragglers of the eastern dry Chinnar slopes.

Of the two species of Riodinidae seen in Kerala and WG, only one species—Abisara echerius prunosa Moore, 1879—has been recorded from ENP.

Of the 100 species of Lycaenidae in WG and 97 in Kerala, 42 species have been reported from ENP. Celatoxia albidisca (Moore, [1884]) is the only endemic species of lycaenid recorded here. Polyommatinae subfamily had 31 taxa, the maximum number of species, Theclinae had only nine, Miletinae had one species, while Curetinae was unrepresented. Interestingly none of the three dependent species from tribe Arhopalini were recorded. Azanus jesous gamra (Lederer, 1855) and Azanus ubaldus (Stoll, [1782]) are dryland species seen on the eastern slopes, but till now not recorded inside ENP. Freyeria putli (Kollar, [1844]) was a common species. Creon cleobis cleobis (Godart, [1824]), the sole representative of tribe Iolaini -was not rare on the shola edges.

Forty-six species of Hesperiidae were noted inside ENP, out of the 82 species seen in Kerala (56.09%) and WG (56.09%). Eight endemics were noted, they were primary grass feeders like Arnetta mercara Evans, 1932, Baracus hampsoni Elwes & Edwards, 1897, Baracus subditus Moore, [1884], and Oriens concinna (Elwes & Edwards, 1897). Some Bamboo and Calamus sp. feeding butterflies like Thoressa evershedi (Evans, 1910), Caltoris canaraica (Moore, [1884]), Thoressa astigmata (Swinhoe, 1890), and Quedara basiflava (de Nicéville, [1889]), were recorded occasionally from the western slopes. Sreekumar et al. (2018) reported Tagiades litigiosa litigiosa Möschler, 1878, and Gerosis bhagava bhagava (Moore, [1866]), both low-midland species from ENP. But, based on our field data these records are doubtful, and are possibly stragglers to high elevations, hence records of these are highly unlikely inside ENP, although these may be found on the western and eastern slopes at lower elevations.

 

Endemicity

Thirty-five species of butterflies from ENP had some kind of endemicity associated with them (Table 2). Twenty-two (52.38%) were strictly endemic to WG. Two papilionids, three pierids, eight nymphalids, one lycaenid, and eight hesperiids of ENP are endemic to the WG.

 

IUCN Red List

Eighteen species are under the Red List of IUCN, in accordance with the global population status. Except for Parantica nilgiriensis in the Near Threatened category, all others are under Least Concern. In addition Pachliopta pandiyana (Moore, 1881) and Byblia ilithyia (Drury, [1773]) are stragglers to the ENP under the Least Concern category (Table 3).

 

WPA 1972

Twenty-seven species from ENP were under the schedules of WPA and its amendments. Two species are in schedule I, one in both schedule I&II, 17 under schedule II, and four under schedule IV (Table 4). Of them Charaxes schreiber wardii (Moore, 1896), Dophla evelina laudabilis Swinhoe, 1890, Prioneris sita (Felder & Felder, 1865), and Appias libythea (Fabricius, 1775) were stragglers.

 

Butterfly Migration in ENP

Eravikulam falls in the main migration path of Anamalai–High Range–Palni landscape. The major passage is the return migration before the northeast monsoons towards the Western Ghats. The major family of this migration is the nymphalids, though the process starts with the pierids. There are two paths followed by the migrants, one is from the Amaravati Valley through Marayur gap and the other is from Palnis. The butterflies ascend into the ENP plateau through the Olikudi, and similar valleys on the eastern slopes of Marayur and Chinnar, passing through Poovar and descend into Valparai and Edamalayar valleys, finally dispersing into the lower Periyar landscape. Major component of the migration are danaines like Tirumala septentrionis dravidarum Fruhstorfer, 1899, Euploea core core (Cramer, [1780]), Tirumala limniace exoticus (Gmelin, 1790), Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Euploea sylvester coreta (Godart, 1819). The pierid component is Catopsilia pomona pomona (Fabricius, 1775), Appias (Catophaga) albina swinhoei (Moore, 1905), and Appias wardii (Moore, 1884). Lycaenids like Jamides bochus bochus (Stoll, [1782]) & Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767) and hesperiids like Pelopidas agna agna (Moore, [1866]) & Pelopidas mathias mathias (Fabricius, 1798) also migrate. The onward migration from Western Ghats to Tamil Nadu plains and the Eastern Ghats is less striking and obvious. List of migrating butterflies is given in Table 5.

 

 

Conclusions

 

This paper critically summarises the butterfly fauna of ENP. A total of 198 species of butterflies were recorded from ENP including point endemics like Neptis palnica Eliot, 1969, and Telinga davisoni (Moore, [1891]) found only in this landscape. These are montane grassland-shola depended species. Moreover, ENP also holds Parantica nilgiriensis (Moore, 1877) a Near Threatened species, and another 11 Western Ghat endemics namely: Palni Bushbrown Telinga davisoni (Moore, [1891]), Red-disc Bushbrown Telinga oculus Marshall, 1881, Nilgiri Four-ring Ypthima chenu (Guérin-Méneville, 1843), Palni Four-ring Ypthima ypthimoides (Moore, 1881), Coorg Forest Bob Arnetta mercara Evans, 1932, Malabar Hedge Hopper Baracus hampsoni Elwes & Edwards, 1897, Yellow-striped Hedge Hopper Baracus subditus Moore, [1884], Unbranded Ace Thoressa astigmata (Swinhoe, 1890), Travancore Tawny Ace Thoressa evershedi (Evans, 1910), Sahyadri Dartlet Oriens concinna (Elwes & Edwards, 1897), and Karwar Swift Caltoris canaraica (Moore, [1884]), which are primary grass (Poaceae) feeders.

During the field work we observed that even though well-protected, the ENP is facing pressures from forest/grassland fires, anthropogenic effects like use of pesticides and invasive flora from tea estates on its borders. Invasive alien species from tea estates like Eucalyptus and Wattle colonise the fringes of ENP, must be systematically removed. The tourism zone is highly vulnerable due to the constant human and vehicular movement during the dry season. There is marginal grazing in and around the boundary of the National Park. Fire is the most alarming threat to the shola grassland ecosystem (Anonymous 2012).

In addition, the Nilgiri Tahr, Nilgiritragus hylocrius (Ogilby, 1838) (the flagship-mammal) oriented forest management practices, like controlled burning of primary grasslands, significantly affect the invertebrate fauna like grasshoppers (Bhaskar et al. 2019), and hence herb/grass feeding butterflies. ENP being the last patch of undisturbed montane shola-grasslands of peninsular India, needs urgent changes in management practices for survival of grassland and shola-dependent endemic invertebrate species.

 

Table 1. Summary of comparison of Western Ghats (WG), Kerala, and Eravikulam National Park (ENP) with respect to butterfly families, endemic status, IUCN Red List status, and legal protection under Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.

Family-wise statistics

Family

WG

Kerala

ENP

Papilionidae

19

19

14

Pieridae

34

32

25

Nymphalidae

100

97

70

Riodinidae 

2

2

1

Lycaenidae

98

94

42

Hesperiidae

82

82

46

Total

335

326

198

Endemic species

Family

WG

Kerala

ENP

Papilionidae

4

4

2

Pieridae

3

3

3

Nymphalidae

18

18

8

Riodinidae 

0

0

0

Lycaenidae

5

5

1

Hesperiidae

12

12

8

Total

42

42

22

IUCN Red List status

Red List Category

WG

Kerala

ENP

Least Concern 

20

20

17

Lower Risk/Near Threatened

2

2

1

Total

22

22

18

WPA 1972 legal status

Schedules

WG

Kerala

ENP

Schedule I

6

6

3

Schedule I,II

1

1

1

Schedule II

45

44

18

Schedule IV

11

11

5

Total 

63

62

27

 

 

Table 2. Family-wise list of endemic species and their known distribution.

 

Scientific name Common name

Endemicity

1

Troides minos (Cramer, [1779]) — Sahyadri Birdwing

WG and SI

2

Pachliopta pandiyana (Moore, 1881) — Malabar Rose

WG

3

Pachliopta hector (Linnaeus, 1758) — Crimson Rose

PI and SL

4

Graphium teredon (Felder & Felder, 1865) — Narrow-banded Bluebottle

SI

5

Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, 1880 — Malabar Raven

WG

6

Eurema (Terias) nilgiriensis (Yata, 1990) — Sahyadri Grass Yellow

WG

7

Colias nilagiriensis Felder & Felder, 1859 — Nilgiri Clouded Yellow

WG

8

Prioneris sita (Felder & Felder, 1865) — Painted Sawtooth

SI and SL

9

Appias wardii (Moore, 1884) — Sahyadri Albatross / Ward’s Albatross

WG

10

Lethe drypetis todara Moore, 1881 — Dakhan Treebrown

SI and SL

11

Mycalesis patnia junonia Butler, 1868 — Malabar Glad-eye Bushbrown

SI

12

Mycalesis subdita Moore, 1892 — Tamil Bushbrown

SI and SL

13

Telinga davisoni (Moore, [1891]) — Palni Bushbrown

WG

14

Telinga oculus Marshall, 1881 — Red-disc Bushbrown

WG

15

Ypthima ceylonica Hewitson, 1865 — White Four-ring

PI and SL

16

Ypthima chenu (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) — Nilgiri Four-ring

WG

17

Ypthima ypthimoides (Moore, 1881) — Palni Four-ring

WG

18

Cethosia mahratta  Moore, 1872 — Sahyadri Lacewing

WG

19

Argynnis castetsi (Oberthür, 1891) — Palni Fritillary

WG

20

Cirrochroa thais thais (Fabricius, 1787) — Sahyadri Yeoman

SI and SL

21

Neptis palnica Eliot, 1969 — Palni/ Creamy Sailer

WG

22

Parantica nilgiriensis (Moore, 1877) — Nilgiri Tiger

WG

23

Celatoxia albidisca (Moore, [1884]) — White-disc Hedge Blue

WG

24

Ionolyce helicon viola (Moore, 1877) — Sri Lankan Pointed Lineblue

WG and SL

25

Cigaritis schistacea (Moore, [1881]) — Plumbeous Silverline

PI and SL

26

Celaenorrhinus fusca (Hampson, 1888) — Dusky Spotted Flat

PI

27

Arnetta mercara Evans, 1932 — Coorg Forest Bob

WG

28

Baracus hampsoni Elwes & Edwards, 1897 — Malabar Hedge Hopper

WG

29

Baracus subditus Moore, [1884] — Yellow-striped Hedge Hopper

WG

30

Quedara basiflava (de Nicéville, [1889]) — Yellow-base Flitter

WG

31

Thoressa astigmata (Swinhoe, 1890) — Unbranded Ace

WG

32

Thoressa evershedi (Evans, 1910) — Travancore Tawny Ace

WG

33

Oriens concinna (Elwes & Edwards, 1897) — Sahyadri Dartlet

WG

34

Potanthus diana (Evans, 1932) — Chinese Dart

PI

35

Caltoris canaraica (Moore, [1884]) — Karwar Swift

WG

 

 

Table 3. List of species in ENP under Red List of IUCN.

 

Scientific name Common name

IUCN Red List status*

1

Troides minos (Cramer, [1779]) — Sahyadri Birdwing

LC

2

Pachliopta pandiyana (Moore, 1881) — Malabar Rose

LC

3

Pachliopta aristolochiae aristolochiae (Fabricius, 1775) — Indian Common Rose

LC

4

Pachliopta hector (Linnaeus, 1758) — Crimson Rose

LC

5

Eurema (Terias) andersoni shimai Yata & Gaonkar, 1999 — Sahyadri One-spot Grass Yellow

LC

6

Eurema brigitta rubella (Wallace, 1867) — Small Grass Yellow

LC

7

Belenois aurota aurota (Fabricius, 1793) — Indian Pioneer

LC

8

Melanitis leda leda (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Common Evening Brown

LC

9

Rohana parisatis atacinus Fruhstorfer, 1913 — Sahyadri Black Prince

LC

10

Byblia ilithyia (Drury, [1773]) — Joker

LC

11

Junonia almana almana  (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Peacock Pansy

LC

12

Junonia hierta hierta (Fabricius, 1798) — Oriental Yellow Pansy

LC

13

Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758) — Painted Lady

LC

14

Euploea core core (Cramer, [1780]) — Indian Common Crow

LC

15

Parantica nilgiriensis (Moore, 1877) — Nilgiri Tiger

NT

16

Zizula hylax hylax (Fabricius, 1775) — Indian Tiny Grass Blue

LC

17

Cheritra freja butleri Cowan, 1965 — Sahyadri Common Imperial

LC

18

Pelopidas mathias mathias (Fabricius, 1798) — Dakhan Small Branded Swift

LC

 

 

Table 4. List of species in ENP under WPA 1972.

 

Scientific name Common name

WPA 1972

Schedule

1

Pachliopta hector (Linnaeus, 1758) — Crimson Rose

 I

2

Eurema (Terias) andersoni shimai Yata & Gaonkar, 1999 — Sahyadri One-spot Grass Yellow

II

3

Prioneris sita (Felder & Felder, 1865) — Painted Sawtooth

IV

4

Cepora nadina remba (Moore, [1858]) — Sahyadri Lesser Gull

II

5

Appias (Hiposcritia) indra shiva (Swinhoe, 1885) — Sahyadri Plain Puffin

II

6

Appias libythea (Fabricius, 1775) — Western Striped Albatross

IV

7

Appias wardii (Moore, 1884) — Sahyadri Albatross / Ward's Albatross

II

8

Melanitis zitenius gokala Moore, 1857 — Sahyadri Great Evening Brown

II

9

Mycalesis anaxias anaxias Hewitson, 1862 — Sahyadri White-bar Bushbrown

II

10

Charaxes schreiber wardii (Moore, 1896) — Sahyadri Blue Nawab

I

11

Libythea laius lepitoides Moore, 1903 — Sahyadri Lobed Beak

II

12

Dophla evelina laudabilis Swinhoe, 1890 — Sahyadri Redspot Duke

II

13

Tanaecia lepidea miyana (Fruhstorfer, 1913) — Peninsular Grey Count

II

14

Athyma ranga karwara (Fruhstorfer, 1906) — Karwar Blackvein Sergeant

II

15

Neptis nata hampsoni Moore, 1899 — Sahyadri Clear Sailer

II

16

Neptis palnica Eliot, 1969 — Palni/ Creamy Sailer

II

17

Parthenos sylvia virens Moore, 1877 — Sahyadri Clipper

II

18

Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764) — Danaid Eggfly

I,II

19

Euchrysops cnejus cnejus (Fabricius, 1798) — Oriental Gram Blue

II

20

Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767) — Pea Blue

II

21

Nacaduba pactolus continentalis Fruhstorfer, 1916 — Continental Large Four-Lineblue

II

22

Prosotas noreia hampsonii (de Nicéville, 1885) — Indian White-tipped Lineblue

I

23

Tarucus ananda (de Nicéville, [1883]) — Dark Pierrot

IV

24

Cigaritis lohita lazularia (Moore, 1881) — Tamil Long-banded Silverline

II

25

Catapaecilma major callone (Fruhstorfer, 1915) — Sahyadri Common Tinsel

II

26

Oriens concinna (Elwes & Edwards, 1897) — Sahyadri Dartlet

IV

27

Pelopidas subochracea subochracea (Moore, 1878) — Bengal Large Branded Swift

IV

 

 

Table 5. List of migratory butterflies of Eravikulam National Park.

 

Family

Tribe

Taxon

1

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Pachliopta aristolochiae aristolochiae (Fabricius, 1775)

2

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Pachliopta hector (Linnaeus, 1758)

3

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Papilio demoleus demoleus Linnaeus, 1758

4

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Papilio polytes romulus Cramer, [1775]

5

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Catopsilia pomona pomona (Fabricius, 1775)

6

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe (Linnaeus, 1758)

7

Pieridae

Pierinae

Cepora nerissa phryne (Fabricius, 1775)

8

Pieridae

Pierinae

Belenois aurota aurota (Fabricius, 1793)

9

Pieridae

Pierinae

Appias (Catophaga) albina swinhoei (Moore, 1905)

10

Pieridae

Pierinae

Appias (Hiposcritia) indra shiva (Swinhoe, 1885)

11

Pieridae

Pierinae

Appias wardii (Moore, 1884)

12

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Hypolimnas bolina jacintha (Drury, 1773)

13

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764)

14

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Junonia almana almana (Linnaeus, 1758)

15

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Junonia hierta hierta (Fabricius, 1798)

16

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Junonia lemonias lemonias (Linnaeus, 1758)

17

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Junonia orithya Butler, 1885

18

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758)

19

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)

20

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Danaus genutia genutia (Cramer, [1779])

21

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Euploea core core (Cramer, [1780])

22

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Euploea sylvester coreta (Godart, 1819)

23

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Parantica aglea aglea (Stoll, [1782])

24

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Tirumala limniace exoticus (Gmelin, 1790)

25

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Tirumala septentrionis dravidarum Fruhstorfer, 1899

26

Lycaenidae

Polyommatinae

Jamides bochus bochus (Stoll, [1782])

27

Lycaenidae

Polyommatinae

Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767) 

28

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Pelopidas agna agna (Moore, [1866])

29

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Pelopidas mathias mathias (Fabricius, 1798)

 

 

Appendix I. Checklist of Butterflies of Eravikulam National Park and Its Environs, Kerala (*POP-Population status as VC–Very Common, C–Common, NR–Not Rare, R– Rare, VR–Very Rare and S–Stragglers, **END– Endemicity as WG–Western Ghats, PI–Peninsular India, SL– Sri Lanka, SI–South India, +IUCN –IUCN Red List Status, #WPA–Indian Wildlife Protection Act Schedule as Sch.)

 

Scientific name Common name

Pop*

End**

IUCN+

WPA#

Papilionidae

1

Troides minos (Cramer, [1779]) — Sahyadri Birdwing

R

WG & SI

LC

 

2

Pachliopta pandiyana (Moore, 1881) — Malabar Rose

VR

WG

LC

 

3

Pachliopta aristolochiae aristolochiae (Fabricius, 1775) — Indian Common Rose

R

 

LC

 

4

Pachliopta hector (Linnaeus, 1758) — Crimson Rose

C

PI & SL

LC

Sch I

5

Graphium agamemnon menides (Fruhstorfer, 1904) — Dakhan Tailed Jay

R

 

 

 

6

Graphium doson eleius (Felder & Felder, 1864) — Dakhan Common Jay

R

 

 

 

7

Graphium nomius nomius (Esper, 1799)– Indian Spot Swordtail

VR

 

 

 

8

Graphium teredon (Felder & Felder, 1865) — Narrow-banded Bluebottle

C

SI

 

 

9

Papilio demoleus demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 — Northern Lime Swallowtail

C

 

 

 

10

Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, 1880 — Malabar Raven

VR

WG

 

 

11

Papilio helenus daksha Hampson, 1888 — Sahyadri Red Helen

NR

 

 

 

12

Papilio polymnestor polymnestor Cramer, [1775] — Indian Blue Mormon

NR

 

 

 

13

Papilio polytes romulus Cramer, [1775] — Indian Common Mormon

C

 

 

 

14

Papilio paris tamilana Moore, 1881 — Sahyadri Paris Peacock

R

 

 

 

Pieridae

15

Catopsilia pomonapomona (Fabricius, 1775) — Oriental Lemon Emigrant

C

 

 

 

16

Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Mottled Emigrant

R

 

 

 

17

Eurema andersoni shimai Yata & Gaonkar, 1999 — Sahyadri One-spot Grass Yellow

VR

 

LC

Sch II

18

Eurema nilgiriensis (Yata, 1990) — Sahyadri Grass Yellow

VR

WG

 

 

19

Eurema blanda silhetana (Wallace, 1867) — Sylhet Three-spot Grass Yellow

NR

 

 

 

20

Euremahecabe hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Common Grass Yellow

NR

 

 

 

21

Eurema laeta laeta (Boisduval, 1836) — Indian Spotless Grass Yellow

C

 

 

 

22

Eurema brigitta rubella (Wallace, 1867) — Small Grass Yellow

C

 

LC

 

23

Colias nilagiriensis Felder & Felder, 1859 — Nilgiri Clouded Yellow

NR

WG

 

 

24

Delias eucharis (Drury, 1773) — Indian Jezebel

R

 

 

 

25

Prioneris sita (Felder & Felder, 1865) — Painted Sawtooth

VR

SI & SL

 

Sch IV

26

Pieris canidia canis Evans, 1912 — Sahyadri Cabbage White

VC

 

 

 

27

Cepora nadina remba (Moore, [1858]) — Sahyadri Lesser Gull

VR

 

 

Sch II

28

Cepora nerissa phryne (Fabricius, 1775) — Dakhan Common Gull

R

 

 

 

29

Belenois aurota aurota (Fabricius, 1793) — Indian Pioneer

R

 

LC

 

30

Appias (Catophaga) albina swinhoei (Moore, 1905) — Sahyadri Common Albatross

C

 

 

 

31

Appias (Hiposcritia) indra shiva (Swinhoe, 1885) — Sahyadri Plain Puffin

NR

 

 

Sch II

32

Appias lalage lalage (Doubleday, 1842) — Himalayan Spot Puffin

VR

 

 

 

33

Appias libythea (Fabricius, 1775) — Western Striped Albatross

R

 

 

Sch IV

34

Appias wardii (Moore, 1884) — Sahyadri Albatross / Ward's Albatross

R

WG

 

Sch II

35

Leptosia nina nina (Fabricius, 1793) — Oriental Psyche

R

 

 

 

36

Colotis fausta fulvia (Wallace, 1867) — Dakhan Large Salmon Arab

S

 

 

 

37

Ixias pyrene sesia (Fabricius, 1777) — Dakhan Yellow Orange-tip

R

 

 

 

38

Pareronia hippia (Fabricius, 1787) — Common Wanderer

R

 

 

 

39

Hebomoia glaucippe australis Butler, 1898 — Sahyadri Great Orange-tip

NR

 

 

 

Nymphalidae

40

Melanitis leda leda (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Common Evening Brown

C

 

LC

 

41

Melanitis phedima varaha Moore, 1857 — Sahyadri Dark Evening Brown

NR

 

 

 

42

Melanitis zitenius gokala Moore, 1857 — Sahyadri Great Evening Brown

R

 

 

Sch II

43

Lethe drypetis todara Moore, 1881 — Dakhan Treebrown

R

SI & SL

 

 

44

Lethe europa europa (Fabricius, 1775) Dakhan Bamboo Treebrown

R

 

 

 

45

Lethe rohria neelgheriensis (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) — Common Treebrown

C

 

 

 

46

Mycalesis anaxias anaxias Hewitson, 1862 — Sahyadri White-bar Bushbrown

NR

 

 

Sch II

47

Mycalesis patnia junonia Butler, 1868 — Malabar Glad-eye Bushbrown

C

SI

 

 

48

Mycalesis mineus polydecta (Cramer, [1777]) —Dakhan Dark-branded Bushbrown

C

 

 

 

49

Mycalesis perseus tabitha (Fabricius, 1793) — Dakhan Common Bushbrown

C

 

 

 

50

Mycalesis subdita Moore, 1892 — Tamil Bushbrown

NR

SI & SL

 

 

51

Mycalesis visala visala Moore, [1858] — Indian Long-branded Bushbrown

NR

 

 

 

52

Orsotriaena medus mandata (Moore, 1857) — Sahyadri Medus Brown

R

 

 

 

53

Telinga davisoni (Moore, [1891]) — Palni Bushbrown

R

WG

 

 

54

Telinga oculus Marshall, 1881 — Red-disc Bushbrown

NR

WG

 

 

55

Ypthima baldus baldus (Fabricius, 1775) — Common Five-ring

C

 

 

 

56

Ypthima ceylonica Hewitson, 1865 — White Four-ring

S

PI & SL

 

 

57

Ypthima chenu (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) — Nilgiri Four-ring

NR

WG

 

 

58

Ypthima huebneri Kirby, 1871 — Common Four-ring

VC

 

 

 

59

Ypthima ypthimoides (Moore, 1881) — Palni Four-ring

C

WG

 

 

60

Rohana parisatis atacinus Fruhstorfer, 1913 — Sahyadri Black Prince

NR

 

LC

 

61

Ariadne ariadne indica (Moore, 1884) — Indian Angled Castor

R

 

 

 

62

Ariadne merione merione (Cramer, [1777]) — Dakhan Common Castor

R

 

 

 

63

Byblia ilithyia (Drury, [1773]) — Joker

S

 

LC

 

64

Charaxes bharata Felder & Felder, [1867] — Indian Nawab

VR

 

 

 

65

Charaxes psaphon imna Butler, 1870 — Indian Plain Tawny Rajah

S

 

 

 

66

Charaxes schreiber wardii (Moore, 1896) — Sahyadri Blue Nawab

S

 

 

Sch I

67

Cyrestis thyodamas indica Evans, 1924 — Common Map

NR

 

 

 

68

Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) — Tawny Coster

R

 

 

 

69

Cethosia mahratta Moore, 1872 — Sahyadri Lacewing

VR

WG

 

 

70

Argynnis castetsi (Oberthür, 1891) — Palni Fritillary

C

WG

 

 

71

Cirrochroa thais thais (Fabricius, 1787) — Sahyadri Yeoman

NR

SI & SL

 

 

72

Cupha erymanthis maja Fruhstorfer, 1898 — Sahyadri Rustic

C

 

 

 

73

Phalanta phalantha phalantha (Drury, [1773]) — Oriental Common Leopard

R

 

 

 

74

Vindula erota saloma de Nicéville, 1886 — Sahyadri Cruiser

C

 

 

 

75

Libythea laius lepitoides Moore, 1903 — Sahyadri Lobed Beak

R

 

 

Sch II

76

Libythea myrrha rama Moore, 1872 — Sri Lankan Club Beak

C

 

 

 

77

Dophla evelina laudabilis Swinhoe, 1890 — Sahyadri Redspot Duke

S

 

 

Sch II

78

Symphaedra nais (Forster, 1771) — Baronet

S

 

 

 

79

Tanaecia lepidea miyana (Fruhstorfer, 1913) — Peninsular Grey Count

R

 

 

Sch II

80

Athyma inara Westwood, 1850 — Color Sergeant

R

 

 

 

81

Athyma perius perius (Linnaeus, 1758) — Oriental Common Sergeant

R

 

 

 

82

Athyma ranga karwara (Fruhstorfer, 1906) — Karwar Blackvein Sergeant

R

 

 

Sch II

83

Athyma selenophora kanara (Evans, 1924) — Staff Sergeant

R

 

 

 

84

Moduza procris procris Fruhstorfer, 1906 — Sahyadri Commander

C

 

 

 

85

Neptis clinia kallaura Moore, 1881 — Sahyadri Sullied Sailer

R

 

 

 

86

Neptis hylas varmona Moore, 1872 — Indian Common Sailer

R

 

 

 

87

Neptis jumbah nalanda Fruhstorfer, 1908 — Nalanda Chestnut-streaked Sailer

R

 

 

 

88

Neptis nata hampsoni Moore, 1899 — Sahyadri Clear Sailer

VR