Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 February 2022 | 14(2): 20550–20565

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.7581.14.2.20550-20565

#7581 | Received 21 July 2021 | Final received 03 December 2021 | Finally accepted 11 January 2022

 

 

 

Seasonal composition of avian communities in different habitats of Harike Wetland, a Ramsar site in Punjab, India

 

Jagdeep Singh 1  & Onkar Singh Brraich 2

 

1,2 Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, Punjab 147002, India.

1 jagdeepsingh1656@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 singhonkar@yahoo.com

 

 

 

Editor: H. Byju, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.             Date of publication: 26 February 2022 (online & print)

 

Citation: Singh, J. &  O.S. Brraich (2022). Seasonal composition of avian communities in different habitats of Harike Wetland, a Ramsar site in Punjab, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(2): 20550–20565. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.7581.14.2.20550-20565

 

Copyright: © Singh & Brraich 2022. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None, all expenses were handled by Jagdeep Singh PhD research scholar.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Jagdeep Singh—currently pursuing a PhD in ornithology and wetland ecology in the Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences Punjabi University, Patiala, is keenly interested in studying birds from the Indian subcontinent. Alongside research, he is also a passionate science writer and believes that science communication is a great way to promote research. Dr. Onkar Singh Brraich—an Assistant Professor, Fish, and Fisheries from the Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences Punjabi University, Patiala. He has a keen interest in fish taxonomy, birds, and biodiversity currently working on the rnvironmental issues of Punjab.

 

Author contributions: OSB—PhD supervisor, edited MS. JS—PhD research scholar. Prepare framework of research, field survey, bird census, photography, data collection and manuscript preparation.

 

Acknowledgements: We thank the chief wildlife warden, Punjab to provide necessary permission to conduct bird surveys, and the officials Ferozepur Forest division for their permission to conduct studies in the sanctuary area and World-Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) for inviting us to the annual bird census. Sincere thanks to the Head, Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences Punjabi University, Patiala, for providing needful research facilities.  Thanks to Yodha Singh, Assistant Professor, Botany Govt. Mohindra College, Patiala and Mr. Amandeep Singh helping in preparation of maps and for company during field visits.

 

 

 

Abstract: The documentation of avifauna of Harike wetland was carried out during November, 2019 to November, 2021 in different habitats and seasons. A total of 225 bird species belonging to 18 orders and 61 families were recorded; 18 fall under the Red List of IUCN, with 11 categorized as Near Threatened, six vulnerable, and one Endangered. Order Passeriformes had the greatest number of species, and mosaic habitats with diverse vegetation showed the highest bird diversity. This study will aid future conservation measures and wetland management programs.

 

Keywords: Bird diversity, conservation, largest freshwater riverine wetland, threatened species.

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Wetlands are among the most fragile and productive habitats on earth (Mitsch & Gosselink 2000; Ladhar 2002; Kumar et al. 2005; Brraich & Singh 2021; Kaur & Brraich 2021). Harike Bird Sanctuary has wide flood plains along the confluence of the rivers Satluj and Beas in the Punjab districts of Ferozepur, Tarn Taran, and Kapurthala (Najar et al. 2017; Singh et al. 2020). India harbours over 1,400 bird species, of which over 300 rely on wetlands (Kumar et al. 2005; Praveen et al. 2016, 2020). Harike wetlands provide breeding, feeding, roosting and staging sites for many birds (Rahmani et al. 2016), and local bird diversity has been studied by various workers (Ali et al. 1981; Robson 1996; Kazmierczak et al. 1998; Robson 1999; Sawant & Sudhagar 2013; Prasad 2008a,b; Sangha 2013, 2017; Singh & Brraich 2021). The area is also home to the Smooth Indian Otter Lutra perspicillata, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, and Dolphin Platanista gangetica minor (Sinha 1997).

Birds are key components of wetland ecosystems. They are indicators of wetland health, as they respond to habitat changes such as human disturbance, poisoning, pollution, eutrophication, and siltation. They also reflect the productivity and tropic structures of wetlands (Morrison 1986; Subramanya 1996). Habitats play a significant role in bird diversity, and understanding habitat choices is important for bird conservation (Tavernia et al. 2016). In this study, a major aim was to prepare an inventory of avifaunal diversity in the various habitats of Harike wetland in different seasons.

 

Study Area

Harike Wetland is a large manmade freshwater riverine wetland and Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary in Punjab, India. Geographically, this sanctuary is located at latitudes of 31°060N & 31°120N and longitudes 74°550E & 75°050E semi-arid biogeographical zone formed by construction of Harike barrage in 1950 on river Beas and Satluj covering 8,435 ha area on the borders of districts Ferozepur, Tarn Taran, and Kapurthala and designated as Ramsar sites in 1990 (Image A) (Najar et al. 2017; Singh et al. 2020). Harike wetland was designated as wildlife sanctuary by the Ministry of Environment, Forest (MoEF), Government of India in 1982 later on it was declared as a bird sanctuary by the Punjab state government in 1992 (Mabwoga & Thukral 2014).

 

 

Materials and Methods

 

Study site was visited in different seasons of Punjab for the span of two years (November 2019–November 2021) and birds are classified into three categories annual, winter, and summer birds (Mavi & Tiwana 1993). Survey was conducted during the maximum bird activity, predominantly between 0600–1100 h and 1500–1700 h adopting various methods like point count method, strip transect sampling, travelling with a manually propelled wooden fishing boat, visual counter method (Bibby et al. 2000; Buckland et al. 2001). Totally eight transect were designed to carry out the survey Image 2 and designated as I (6.23 km), II (6.95 km), III (2.25 km), IV (3.32 km), V (4.64 km), VI (5.47 km), VII (2.47 km), VIII (1.2 km) (Image 1 & 2). Observations of birds were made in all habitats which were classified as agriculture, built up (urban, rural, hamlet), forest (plantation, tree clad), water bodies (ponds, canal, brushwood along canal), wasteland (scrubland sandy area, shrubs/ grasses, dry bed of seasonal river), wetland (waterlogged aquatic vegetation, swampy land with scrub, reed, marshes) (Image 2) (Kalsi 1998; Kalsi et al. 2015; Singh et al. 2020). Photography of birds was done during the survey with DSLR camera Canon 1200D (75–300 mm zoom lens) and binocular (Olympus 8-16*40 zoom DPS-I) were used for spotting, and field notes were prepared, followed by identification of birds using field guides (Ali & Ripley 1983; Grewal et al. 1995; Grimmett et al. 2012) and nomenclature and classification is followed according to Praveen et al. (2016). The conservation status of species was assessed according to International Union for Conservation of Nature (2017), and residential and migratory status is based earlier literature and their presence or absence at study site (Grimmett & Inskipp 2010; Rai & Vanita 2021). Relative abundance is based upon the frequency of sightings birds were classified into different categories Very Common (recorded in more than 9–10/10 visits), Common (between 6–8/10 visits), Uncommon (between 3–5/10 visits) and Rare (recorded 1–2/10 visits) relative abundance on the basis of (McKinnon & Philips 1993). The relative diversity (RDi) of different families was calculated following La Torre-Cuadros et al. (2007) equation:

RDi= (Number of Bird species in Family/Total Number of Bird Species) X 100

 

 

Results and Discussion

 

During the present investigations, total of 225 bird species under 18 orders and 61 families were reported from the Harike wetland and its surrounding areas (Table 1). This wetland supports 113 migrant and 112 resident bird species. Overall, Passeriformes are the dominant order with 38% (85 species), consistent with their being the dominant avian taxa of India (Praveen et al. 2016). They were followed by Charadriiformes 16% (37 species), Anseriformes 8.4% (19 species), Pelecaniformes 7.6% (17 species), Accipitriformes 5.8% (13 species), Coraciiformes 3.6% (8 species), Gruiformes 3.1% (7 species), Columbiformes 2.7% (6 species), and Strigiformes 2.2% (5 species). Orders like Cuculiformes, Piciformes, Podicipediformes, and Suliformes were represented by 1.8% (4 species) followed by Galliformes and Ciconiiformes with 1.3% (3 species) each. Birds were also found from orders Apodiformes, Falconiformes, and Psittaciformes (Table 3).

Species represented by orders Anseriformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes, Ciconiiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, Podicipediformes, and Suliformes were the major water birds, the rest are wetland-dependent birds (Kumar et al. 2005). Relative diversity data shows that family Anatidae was most diverse (19 species, RDi 8.444) with similar observations made at Basai wetland and Nangal wetland (Rai et al. 2019; Kaur & Brraich 2021), followed by Scolopacidae (14 species, RDi 6.22), Ardeidae (13 species, RDi 5.777), Accipitridae (12 species, RDi 5.333), Muscicapidae (11 speices, RDi 4.888), Laridae and Motacillidae (10 species, 4.444), Cisticolidae (8 species, RDi 3.555), Rallidae (7 speices, RDi 3.11), Charadriidae, Columbidae, Hirundinidae, and Sturnidae (6 speices, RDi 2.666), Cuculidae, Estrildidae, Phylloscopidae, Podicipedidae, Strigidae, and Threskiornithidae (4 species, RDi 1.777), Acrocephalidae, Alaudidae, Alcedinidae, Ciconiidae, Laniidae, Leiothrichidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Phasianidae, Picidae, and Ploceidae (3 species, RDi 1.333) lastly Anhingidae, Bucerotidae, Burhinidae, Coraciidae, Dicruridae, Jacanidae, Locustellidae, Monarchidae, Nectariniidae, Oriolidae, Pandionidae, Pellorneidae, Pycnonotidae, Rostratulidae, Stenostiridae, Tytonidae, Upupidae, Vangidae, and Zosteropidae were poorly diverse representing 1 species each and RDi 0.444 (Table 2).

Data on relative abundance show that 111 species were Very common, 69 species were common, 37 species were Uncommon and eight species were rare in the area. A comparative analysis of residential status of observed species with relative abundance shows that out of 112 resident species, 65 species were very common, 34 common, 11 Uncommon, and two
rare; among 17 summer migrants; seven species were very common, three common, six uncommon, and one rare and trend in winter migrants which were 96 in number: 40 species were very common, 32 common, 19 common, and five rare (Figure 1). The population trends of present species and relative abundance shows that 68 species which are decreasing globally were present, of which 33 were very common, which shows the importance of unique habitat in the wetland in increasing trends. Eighty-seven species were globally stable, and the status of 35 was unknown as per IUCN (2021) (Figure 2).

Wetlands support globally threatened species such as Ferruginous Duck, Black-tailed Godwit, River Tern, Eurasian Curlew, River Lapwing, Painted Stork, Red-necked Falcon, Rufous-vented Grass Babbler, Black-headed White Ibis, Alexandrine Parakeet, Oriental Darter categorized under Near Threatened, Greater Spotted Eagle, Common Pochard, Woolly-necked Stork, Bristled Grass-Warbler, Jerdon’s Babbler, Horned Grebe were listed under vulnerable category by IUCN. Bristled Grass-Warbler and Jerdon’s Babbler were earlier recorded from this wetland (Kazmierczak et al. 1998; Prasad 2008b; Sawant & Sudhagar 2013; Singh & Brraich 2021). Interestingly, Jerdon’s Babbler was found with nesting material, which shows their probable breeding record at Harike Wetland. 

Seasonal data show that 112 species (50%) are present throughout year, 96 species (43%) were found in winter during migration, and the least number of species were found in summer (17 species; 7.6%). Habitat preference data revealed that combination of habitats like wetland, forest, waterbodies show the maximum number of birds, on the other hand build up, agriculture and wasteland show comparatively less bird diversity, resultantly it is concluded that to attract of more bird species wetland vegetation should be more diverse. Heterogenetic habitats and to the initiations of conservation measures always show more diversity (Burger 1985; Brown et al. 2001; Kushlan et al. 2002; Tu et al. 2020). Beside birds, wetlands are important habitats for reptiles like Gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Critically Endangered), mammals like Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata (Vulnerable), and Indus River Dolphin Platanista gangetica (Endangered). From diversity point of view, wetlands are most important in Punjab. Further, it is observed that wetland is highly human-dominated, and under severe pressure of resource extraction for various purposes. Wetlands and adjoining areas are facing land encroachment for agriculture, livelihood and other commercial activities. Similar observations have been made by Singh et al. (2020). In a highly populated country like India with less resources, resolving this issue is a tough task. Awareness among local populations with combined efforts of researchers, conservators, stake holders and government agencies can support sustainability of avifaunal diversity.     

 

 

Table 1 . List of birds in different seasons and habitats with their conservation status.

 

 

 

Name/ Scientific name

Family

Seasons

Preferred habitat 

IUCN Status/ Population trends

Migratory/ Residential status        

Abundance

Order: Accipitriformes

1

Black Kite

Milvus lineatus (Boddaert, 1783)

Accipitridae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest /Water bodies / Built up  

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

2

Black-winged Kite

Elanus caeruleus (Desfontaines, 1789)

Accipitridae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies/ Agriculture land/ Built Up

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

3

Booted Eagle

Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin, 1788)

Accipitridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

UC

4

Crested Serpent-Eagle

Spilornis cheela (Latham, 1790)

Accipitridae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

UC

5

Eurasian Sparrowhawk

Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Accipitridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant 

C

6

Shikra

Accipiter badius (Gmelin, 1788)

Accipitridae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies/ Built Up/ Agriculture

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

7

Steppe Eagle

Aquila nipalensis Hodgson, 1833

Accipitridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Endangered/ Decreasing

Resident

UC

8

Short-toed Snake-Eagle

Circaetus gallicus (Gmelin, 1788)

Accipitridae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

UC

9

Greater Spotted Eagle

Clanga hastate (Pallas, 1811)

Accipitridae

 

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Vulnerable/ Decreasing

Resident

UC

10

Common Buzzard

Buteo buteo Linnaeus, 1758

Accipitridae

 

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

UC

11

Oriental Honey-

Buzzard

Pernis ptilorhynchus (Temminck, 1821)

Accipitridae

 

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

C

12

Osprey

Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pandionidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

C

13

Hen harrier

Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Accipitridae

 

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Water bodies/Wasteland

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

R

Order: Anseriformes

14

Bar-headed Goose

Anser indicus (Latham, 1790)

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter

Migrant

VC

15

Comb Duck

Sarkidiornis melanotos (Pennant, 1769)

Anatidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Resident

VC

16

Common Pochard

Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Vulnerable/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

17

Common Teal

Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter Migrant

VC

18

Cotton Teal

Nettapus coromandelianus (Gmelin, 1789)

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

UC

19

Eurasian Wigeon

Anas penelope Linnaeus, 1758

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

20

Gadwall

Anas strepera Linnaeus, 1758

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

VC

21

Garganey

Anas querquedula Linnaeus, 1758

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

22

Grey-leg Goose

Anser anser (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

VC

23

Indian Spotbill Duck

Anas poecilorhyncha J.R. Forester, 1781

Anatidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies/Agriculture

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Resident

VC

24

Lesser Whistling Duck

Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield, 1821)

Anatidae

Summer, Rainy

Wetland/ Waterbodies/ Agriculture

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Summer

Migrant

VC

25

Northern Shoveller

Anas clypeata Linnaeus, 1758

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

26

Northern Pintail

Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

27

Red Crested Poachard

Netta rufina (Pallas, 1773)

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter Migrant

VC

28

Ruddy Shelduck

Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas, 1764)

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter Migrant

VC

29

Common Shelduck

Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anatidae

 

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

VC

30

Mallard

Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

VC

31

Ferruginous Duck

Aythya nyroca (Guldenstadt, 1770)

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Near Threatened/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

32

Tufted Duck

Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anatidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

VC

Order: Apodiformes

33

House Swift

Apus affinis (J.E. Gray, 1830)

Apodidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland

Least Concern/ Increasing

Resident

VC

34

Alpine Swift

Tachymarptis melba (Linnaeus, 1758)

Apodidae

 

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident  

VC

 Order: Charadriiformes

35

Black-tailed Godwit

Limosa limosa (Linnaeus, 1758)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Wasteland 

Near Threatened/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

36

Black-winged Stilt

Himantopus himantopus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Recurvirostridae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies/Wasteland/Agriculture 

Least Concern/ Increasing

Resident

VC

37

Common Redshank

Tringa totanus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter Migrant

VC

38

Common Sandpiper

Actitis hypoleucos Linnaeus, 1758

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

39

Common Snipe

Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus, 1758)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

C

40

Dunlin

Calidris alpina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

41

Eurasian Thick-Knee

Burhinus oedicnemus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Burhinidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Resident

C

42

Green Sandpiper

Tringa ochropus Linnaeus, 1758

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

VC

43

Greenshank

Tringa nebularia (Gunner, 1767)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

VC

44

Small Pratincole

Glareola lactea Temminck, 1820

Glareolidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

C

45

Little Ringed Plover

Charadrius dubius Scopoli, 1786

Charadriidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

VC

46

Common Ringed Plover

Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus, 1758

Charadriidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

C

47

Little Stint

Calidris minuta (Leisler, 1812)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

VC

48

Marsh Sandpiper

Tringa stagnatilis (Bechstein, 1803)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

C

49

Pheasant Tailed Jacana

Hydrophasianus chirurgus (Scopoli, 1786)

Jacanidae

Summer, Rainy

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Summer Migrant

VC

50

Pied Avocet

Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus, 1758

Recurvirostridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter Migrant

VC

51

Red-wattled Lapwing

Vanellus indicus (Boddaert, 1783)

Charadriidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

52

River Lapwing

Vanellus duvaucelii (Lesson, 1826)

Charadriidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Waterbodies/Wetland

Near Threatened/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

C

53

Ruff

Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

VC

54

Spotted Redshank

Tringa erythropus (Pallas, 1764)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

C

55

Temminck Stint

Calidris temminckii (Leisler, 1812)

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter

Migrant

C

56

White-tailed Lapwing

Vanellus leucurus (Lichtenstein, 1823)

Charadriidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter

Migrant

VC

57

Wood Sandpiper

Tringa glareola Linnaeus, 1758

Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

VC

58

Eurasian Curlew

Numenius arquata (Linnaeus, 1758)

 ‎Scolopacidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Near threatened/ Decreasing

Winter

Migrant

C

59

Yellow Wattled Lapwing

Vanellus malabaricus (Boddaert, 1783)

 ‎Charadriidae

Summer, Rainy

Wasteland

Least Concern/ Stable

Summer

Migrant

UC

60

Oriental Pratincole

Glareola maldivarum J.R. Forster, 1795

Glareolidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Summer Migrant

UC

61

Greater Painted Snipe

Rostratula benghalensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rostratulidae

 

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter

Migrant

UC

62

Black-headed Gull

Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766

 Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter

Migrant

C

63

Brown-headed Gull

Larus brunnicephalus Jerdon, 1840

 Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter

Migrant

C

64

Gull-billed Tern

Gelochelidon nilotica (Gmelin, 1789)

Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter

Migrant

C

65

Pallas’s Gull

Larus ichthyaetus Pallas, 1773

 Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ 

Increasing

Winter

Migrant

VC

66

Yellow-legged Gull

Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811

Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter

Migrant

VC

67

Heuglin’s Gull

Larus heuglini Bree, 1876

Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter

Migrant

C

68

Little Gull

Larus minutus Pallas, 1776

Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter

Migrant

C

69

River Tern

Sterna aurantia J.E. Gray, 1831

Laridae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Near Threatened/ Decreasing

Resident

VC

70

Little Tern

Sterna albifrons Pallas, 1764

Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter

Migrant 

UC

71

Whiskered Tern

Chlidonias hybridus (Pallas, 1811)

Laridae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/ Waterbodies

Least Concern / Stable

Winter

Migrant

VC

Order: Ciconiiformes 

72

Asian Openbill Stork

Anastomus oscitans (Boddaert, 1783)

Ciconiidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

C

73

Painted Stork

Mycteria leucocephala (Pennant, 1769)

Ciconiidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Near Threatened/ Decreasing

Resident

VC

74

Woolly-necked Stork

Ciconia episcopus (Boddaert, 1783)

Ciconiidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland/ Waterbodies/ Wetland

Vulnerable/ Decreasing

Winter

Migrant

C

Order: Columbiformes

75

Rock Pigeon

Columba livia Gmelin, 1789

Columbidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Built up/ Agriculture 

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Resident

VC

76

Eurasian Collared Dove

Streptopelia decaocto (Frivaldszky, 1838)

Columbidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Resident

C

77

Laughing Dove

Streptopelia senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766)

Columbidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

C

78

Red Turtle Dove

Streptopelia tranquebarica (Hermann, 1804)

Columbidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Resident

C

79

Spotted Dove

Streptopelia chinensis (Scopoli, 1786)

Columbidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies/Built up

Least Concern/

Increasing

Resident

C

80

Yellow Footed Green Pigeon

Treron phoenicoptera (Latham, 1790)

Columbidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies/ Built up

Least Concern/Unknown

Resident

VC

Order: Coraciiformes

81

Common Kingfisher

Alcedo atthis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Alcedinidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

82

Eurasian Hoopoe

Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758

Upupidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wetland/Waterbodies/ Built up

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Resident

VC

83

Green Bee-Eater

Merops orientalis Latham, 1801

Meropidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Waterbodies/Wasteland

Least Concern/ Increasing

Resident

VC

84

Indian Grey Hornbill

Ocyceros birostris (Scopoli, 1786)

Bucerotidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

85

Indian Roller

Coracias benghalensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Coraciidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Resident

C

86

White-Throated Kingfisher

Halcyon smyrnensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Alcedinidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wetland/Waterbodies/ Built up  

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

87

Lesser Pied Kingfisher

Ceryle rudis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Alcedinidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

88

Blue Tailed Bee Eater

Merops philippinus Linnaeus, 1766

Meropidae

Summer, Rainy

Forest/Waterbodies/Wasteland

Least Concern/ Stable

Summer

Migrant

VC

Order:  Cuculiformes

89

Asian Koel

Eudynamys scolopacea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Cuculidae

Summer, Rainy

Forest/Waterbodies/ Built up

Least Concern/ Stable

Summer

Migrant

VC

90

Greater Coucal

Centropus sinensis (Stephens, 1815)

Cuculidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Waterbodies/ Built up

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

91

Pied Crested Cuckoo

Clamator jacobinus (Boddaert, 1783)

Cuculidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Waterbodies 

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

C

92

Common Hawk-cuckoo

Hierococcyx varius (Vahl, 1797)

Cuculidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

C

Order: Falconiformes

93

Peregrine Falcon

Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771

Falconidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

R

94

Red necked Falcon

Falco chicquera Daudin, 1800

Falconidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Waterbodies 

Near Threatened/Decreasing

Winter

Migrant

R

Order:  Galliformes

95

Grey Francolin

Francolinus pondicerianus (Gmelin, 1789)

Phasinidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland/Forest/ Built Up 

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

96

Indian Peafowl

Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758

Phasinidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Wasteland/ Built up 

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

97

Black Francolin

Francolinus francolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

‎Phasianidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

C

Order: Gruiformes

98

Common Coot

Fulica atra Linnaeus, 1758

Rallidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter

Migrant

VC

99

Common Moorhen

Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rallidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

100

Purple Moorhen

Porphyrio porphyrio (Linnaeus, 1758)

Rallidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

101

White-Breasted Waterhen

Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769)

Rallidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies/ Agriculture

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

102

Watercock

Gallicrex cinerea (Gmelin, 1789)

Rallidae

Summer, Rainy

Wetland/Waterbodies/ Agriculture

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Summer

Migrant

C

103

Baillon's crake

Zapornia pusilla (Pallas, 1776)

Rallidae

Summer, Rainy

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter Migrant

R

104

Ruddy-breasted Crake

Porzana fusca (Linnaeus, 1766)

Rallidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter Migrant

UC

 Order:  Passeriformes

105

Long Tail Shrike

Lanius schach Linnaeus, 1758

Laniidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland/Waterbodies 

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

C

106

Ashy Prinia

Prinia socialis Sykes, 1832

Cisticolidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

107

Asian Pied Starling

Sturnus contra Linnaeus, 1758

Sturnidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/waterbodies/ Built Up

Least Concern/ Increasing

Resident

VC

108

Bank Myna

Acridotheres ginginianus (Latham, 1790)

Sturnidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Resident

VC

109

Barn Swallow

Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758

Hirundinidae

Summer, Rainy

Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Summer Migrant

VC

110

Baya Weaver Bird

Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Ploceidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/ Waterbodies/Wasteland

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

111

Baybacked Shrike

Lanius vittatus Valenciennes, 1826

Laniidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

112

Bengal Bushlark

Mirafra assamica Horsfield, 1840

Alaudidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

C

113

Black Drongo

Dicrurus macrocercus Vieillot, 1817

Dicruridae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies/ Built Up 

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

114

Black Redstart

Phoenicurus ochruros (Gmelin, SG, 1774)

Muscicapidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies/ Buil Up

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

VC

115

Black-headed Bunting

Emberiza melanocephala Scopoli, 1769

Emberizidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Unknown

Winter Migrant

C

116

Bluethroat

Luscinia svecica (Linnaeus, 1758)

Muscicapidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Winter Migrant

VC

117

Blyth's Reed Warbler

Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth, 1849

Acrocephalidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter Migrant

C

118

Booted Warbler

Hippolais caligata (Lichtenstein, 1823)    

Acrocephalidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter

Migrant

UC

119

Brahminy Myna

Sturnus pagodarum (Gmelin, 1789)

Sturnidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies/ Built Up

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

120

Brown Rock-Chat

Cercomela fusca (Blyth, 1851)

Muscicapidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies/ Built Up

Least Concern/ Unknown

Resident

VC

121

Brown Shrike

Lanius cristatus Linnaeus, 1758

Laniidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Decreasing

Winter

Migrant

VC

122

Citrine Wagtail

Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776

Motacillidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Wetland/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter

Migrant

VC

123

Common Babbler

Turdoides caudatus (Dumont, 1823)

Leiothrichidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Stable

Resident

VC

124

Common Chiffchaff

Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot, 1817)

Phylloscopidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter

Migrant

VC

125

Common Myna

Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus, 1766)

Sturnidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies/ Built Up

Least Concern/ Increasing

Resident

VC

126

Greater Whitethroat

Sylvia communis (Latham, 1787)

Sylviidae

Autumn, Winters, Spring

Forest/Wasteland/Waterbodies

Least Concern/ Increasing

Winter

Migrant

UC

127

Crested Lark

Galerida cristata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Alaudidae

Summer, Rainy, Autumn, Winters, Spring