Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 February 2022 | 14(2): 20606–20614

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.7419.14.2.20606-20614

#7419 | Received 28 May 2021 | Final received 14 January 2022 | Finally accepted 11 February 2022

 

 

New host plant records of Fig Wax Scale Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) from India

 

Arvind Kumar 1 & Renu Pandey 2

 

1 Forest Protection Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, PO-New Forest, Uttarakhand 248006, India.

2 Department of Entomology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145, India.

1 arvind.ento@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 renu.pandey17@gmail.com

 

 

Editor: Fabio Cianferoni, Italian National Research Council, Florence, Italy.            Date of publication: 26 February 2022 (online & print)

 

Citation: Kumar, A. & R. Pandey (2022). New host plant records of Fig Wax Scale Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) from India.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(2): 20606–20614. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.7419.14.2.20606-20614

 

Copyright: © Kumar & Pandey 2022. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: This study is the part of project funded by Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun with project number- FRI-365-FPD-03.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Dr. Arvind Kumar is a scientist with the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, India. He is working in the field of Insect biodiversity, taxonomy and biological control of insect pests in Forestry.  Dr. Renu Pandey is working as Assistant Professor at Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, Indian. She is working in the field of Insect pathology and biological control of insect pests in agricultural crops.

 

Author contributions: AK has surveyed the region and collected the host plants in the Garhwal region, identified the insect species, photography, and prepared this manuscript.  RP has collected the host pants from Kumaun region of Uttarakhand and contributed to prepare this manuscript.

 

Acknowledgements: Authors are indebted to the Director, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun for kindly providing necessary facilities to carry out this study. We also express gratitude to the Dr. Praveen Kumar Verma, scientist-C Botany Division for taxonomic identification of the host plants.

 

 

 

Abstract: A survey for the host plants of Fig Wax Scale Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus, 1758) was conducted in the Uttarakhand province, India. Among the six new host plants recorded during the study, four are new host records of C. rusci. A global check list of host plants of C. rusci was also prepared.

 

Keywords: Biological stages, checklist, infestation, morphological characters, scale insect.

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

          

Members of the genus Ceroplastes Gray, 1828 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae), known as wax scale insects are pest of numerous fruit and other plants of economic importance (Pellizzari & Camporese, 1994). The genus has a worldwide distribution including India (Kumar 2013). Among the species belonging to this genus, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus, 1758), Fig Wax Scale, is of immense economic importance with a wide range of host species across the world (Morales et al. 2016). Ceroplastes rusci is one of the earliest species reported from the Mediterranean region and has been known since Theophrastus’ era, i.e., 370–285 BCE (Silvestri & Martelli 1908). Primarily it is native to the Afrotropical region (Qin et al. 1994, 1998) and has also been reported from Palearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, Ethiopian, and Australian regions (Ben-Dov 1993; Waterhouse & Sands 2001). Ceroplastes rusci was first reported in Britain from Ficus carica fruits imported from Italy (Green 1917). It has a wide range of host plants in Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, and India (Talhouk 1975; Kumar 2013). Apart from fig, Nerium oleander, Pistacia lentiscus, and P. terebinthus are its common host plants (Balachowsky & Mesnil 1935). About 100 per cent plant infestation by C. rusci in Annona muricata was recorded with 100 per cent of its shoot infestation (Vu et al. 2006). Ceroplastes rusci infestation in fig was recorded with about 500 nymphs per twig (Bodkin 1927; Balachowsky & Mesnil 1935; Khasawinah & Talhouk 1964; Talhouk 1969; Argyriou & Santorini 1980; Mustafa-Al-Antary & Al-Momany 1990; Mustafa-Al-Antary & Sharaf 1994). In India C. rusci has been reported infesting Mangifera indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Syzygium sp., Ziziphus mauritiana, Citrus sp., Ficus benghalensis, F. religiosa, F. rubiginosa, F. acrocarpa, F. retusa, and F. carica (Del Guercio 1906; Balachowsky & Mesnil 1935; Talhouk 1975; Morsi & Mousa 2003; Vu et al. 2006; Mifsud et al. 2012; Kumar 2013). Ceroplastes rusci is also reported as a vector of plant viruses (La Notte et al. 1997). Ben-Dov (1993) reported 39 plant species hosting C. rusci and subsequently, Morales et al. (2016) listed 137 host plant species belonging to 48 families of the world. The finding of the workers proves that C. rusci has wide range of host plants worldwide. The present survey was carried out to find out the host-plant species and infestation intensity in Uttarakhand, India and subsequently check list of host plant of the world was also prepared.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

          

The present study was carried out in foothill regions of Uttarakhand province, India at an elevation range of 200–1,200 m. The plant species infested with C. rusci were observed from Dehradun (30.349N, 79.002E), Haridwar (29.934N, 77.938E), Udham Singh Nagar (29.022N, 79.484E), Nainital (29.150N, 79.582E), and Champawat (29.078N, 80.101E) districts during the years 2018 and 2019. The infestation intensity of C. rusci on each host plant species was recorded and plant samples were collected and identified by taxonomists at the Systematic Botany Discipline. Digital photo of morphological characters and biological stages of C. rusci (Figure 2) were taken under Leica M-205 microscope fitted with a photographic camera MC190 HD at the Insect Systematic Laboratory, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Subsequently, identification of C. rusci also referred to the reports of Gimpel et al. (1974), Williams & Watson (1990), and Hodgson & Peronti (2012). Infestation data was statistically analysed for their mean and standard deviation using Microsoft Excel.

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

          

In the present survey of host plants of C. rusci in Uttarakhand, India, Chrysanthemum sp., Ocimum gratissimum L., Ficus benjamina L., Ficus natalensis Hochst., Grevillea robusta A.Cunn. ex R.Br. and Geijera parviflora Lindl. were found to be infested with C. rusci (Table 1 & Figure 1). These host plants were also recorded as new hosts in India. Kumar (2013) has reported eight host plants of C. rusci, viz., Citrus sp., D. sissoo, F. benghalensis, F. religiosa, F. carica, M. indica, Psydium sp., Syzygium sp., and Z. mauritiana from India. Ficus benjamina (Balachowsky, 1927) and Grevillea robusta (Ben-Dov, 1970) were also reported from Israel. The population intensity (Table 1) of C. rusci was recorded to be maximum in F. natalensis (132.10 insects m-2) followed by F. benjamina (27.34 insects m-2), Chrysanthemum sp. (24.60 insects m-2), O. gratissimum (3.67 insects m-2), G. robusta (3.34 insects m-2), and G. parviflora (2.70 insects m-2). Ceroplastes rusci was recorded to be infesting to D. sissoo tree with an intensity of about 23.33 insects per twig and up to 10.00 insect per leaf (Kumar 2013). The present study also revealed that plants of Moraceae family were preferred hosts of C. rusci in the study area. Six new host plant species of C. rusci recorded from India, indicated that C. rusci is a polyphagous species and there are additional host plants yet to be detected.

 

Table 1. New host plants of Ceroplastes rusci and its population intensity in Uttarakhand, India.

Botanical name

Family

Population

(mean ±SD) m-2

Chrysanthemum sp.*

Asteraceae

24.60±3.91

Ocimum gratissimum L.*

Lamiaceae

3.67±1.47

Ficus benjamina L.

Moraceae

27.34±4.53

Ficus natalensis Hochst.*

Moraceae

32.10±3.89

Grevillea robusta A.Cunn. ex R.Br.

Proteaceae

3.34±1.39

Geijera parviflora Lindl.*

Rutaceae

2.70±1.02

*New records for the world

 

 

Table 2. Check list of host plant species of Ceroplastes rusci of the world.

 

 

Family

Botanical name

References

1

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica #

Carnero Hernandez & Perez

Guerra (1986), Malumphy (2010),

Kumar (2013)

2

 

Pistacia lentiscus

Bodenheimer (1928)

3

 

Pistacia terebinthus

Balachowsky & Mesnil (1935) 

4

 

Pistacia vera

Ülgentürk & Dokuyucu (2019)

5

 

Rhus coriaria

Marott (1987)

6

 

Schinus terebinthifolius

Ben-Dov (1970)

7

 

Schinus molle

Bodenheimer (1928)

8

 

Searsia gerrardii 

Brain (1920)

9

 

Spondias purpurea

Lincango et al. (2010)

10

Annonaceae

Annona cherimoya

Nakahara (1983)

11

 

Annona muricata

Ben-Dov (1993)

12

 

Annona reticulata

Malumphy & Anderson (2011)

13

 

Annona squamosa

Nakahara (1983)

14

Apocynaceae

Alstonia scholaris 

Wu and Wang (2019)

15

 

Cascabela thevetia

Ben-Dov (1970)

16

 

Nerium oleander

Balachowsky & Mesnil (1935)

17

 

Thevetia peruviana

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

18

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex aquifolium

Ben-Dov (1993)

19

Araliaceae

Hedera helix

Ben-Dov (1993)

20

Arecaceae

Brahea armata

Malumphy (2010)

21

 

Chamaerops humilis

Marotta (1987)

22

 

Cocos nucifera

Chua (1997)

23

 

Dictyosperma album

Malumphy (2010)

24

 

Dypsis lutescens 

Wu & Wang (2019)

25

 

Mascarena sp.

Malumphy (2010)

26

 

Phoenix canariensis

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

27

 

Phoenix roebelenii

Malumphy (2010)

28

 

Trachycarpus fortunei 

Wu & Wang (2019)

29

Asparagaceae

Ruscus aculeatus

Marotta (1987)

30

Asteraceae

Argyranthemum frutescens

Crnero & Perez (1986)

31

 

Chrysanthemum sp. #

New Record

32

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens sultani

Ben-Dov (1993)

33

Boraginaceae

Cordia lutea

Lincango et al. (2010)

34

 

Cordia myxa

Ben-Dov (1970)

35

Buxaceae

Buxus balearica

Balachowsky (1939)

36

Cannaceae

Canna sp.

Ben-Dov (2012)

37

Clusiaceae

Psorospermum sp.

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

38

Compositae

Artemisia sp.

Crnero & Perez (1986)

39

 

Artemisia monosperma

Ben-Dov (2012)

40

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus sp.

Ben-Dov (1993)

41

 

Ipomoea sp.

Borg (1932)

42

 

Ipomoea batatus

Nakahara (1983)

43

Cyperaceae

Cyperus sp.

Hall (1922)

44

 

Cyperus diffusus

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

45

 

Cyperus involucratus

Ben-Dov (1970)

46

Ebenaceae

Diospyros austro-africana

Hodgson & Peronti (2012)

47

 

Diospyros glabra

Hodgson & Peronti (2012)

48

 

Euclea sp.

Hodgson (1969)

49

 

Euclea schimperi

Hodgson & Peronti (2012)

50

Ericaceae

Arbutus unedo

Balachowsky (1931)

51

Euphorbiaceae

Codiaeum variegatum

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

52

 

Euphorbia longan

Ben-Dov (1993)

53

Fabaceae

Albizia sp.

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

54

 

Dalbergia sissoo #

Kumar (2013)

55

 

Phaseolus caracalla

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

56

 

Tamarindus sp.

Gomez  (1958)

57

 

Vigna caracalla 

Borg (1932)

58

Heliconiaceae

Heliconia sp.

Malumphy (2010)

59

Hypericaceae

Psorospermum sp.

Hodgson (1994)

60

 

Psorospermum febrifugum

Hall (1931)

61

Juncaceae

Juncus acutus

Carnero & Perez (1986)

62

Lauraceae

Laurus nobilis

Ben-Dov (1993)

63

 

Persea americana

Ben-Dov (1970)

64

Lamiaceae

Ocimum gratissimum

New Record

65

Loranthaceae

Plicosepalus acaciae

Ben-Dov (2012)

66

Lythraceae

Lawsonia inermis

Hall (1923)

67

Malvaceae

Gossypium sp.

Carnero & Perez (1986)

68

 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Lincango et al. (2010)

69

Moraceae

Ficus amplissima 

Marotta (1987)

70

 

Ficus benghalensis #

Hodgson & Peronti (2012)

Kumar (2013)

71

 

Ficus benjamina #

Balachowsky (1927)

New record

72

 

Ficus carica #

Green (1917)

Balachowsky (1939)

Kumar (2013)

73

 

Ficus concinna 

Wu & Wang (2019)

74

 

Ficus elastica

Marotta (1987)

75

 

Ficus infectoria

Hodgson & Peronti (2012)

76

 

Ficus macrophylla

Balachowsky (1927)

77

 

Ficus microcarpa

Wu & Wang (2019)

78

 

Ficus natalensis

New Record

79

 

Ficus obliqua

Ben-Dov (1970)

80

 

Ficus pseudosycomorus

Hall (1922)

81

 

Ficus religiosa #

Kumar (2013)

82

 

Ficus retusa 

Ben-Dov (1970)

83

 

Ficus rubiginosa

Ben-Dov (1970)

84

 

Ficus sycomorus 

Ben-Dov (1970)

85

 

Ficus thonningii 

Hodgson (1994)

86

 

Ficus virens

Bodenheimer (1924)

87

 

Morus alba

Ben-Dov (1970)

88

 

Morus nigra

Marotta (1987)

89

Musaceae

Musa sp.

Hall (1924)

90

 

Musa acuminata

Marotta (1987)

91

 

Musa cavendishi

Ben-Dov (1993)

92

 

Musa paradisiaca

Hall (1922)

93

 

Musa sapientum

Ben-Dov (1993)

94

Myrtaceae

Myrtus sp.

Bodenheimer (1928)

95

 

Myrtus communis

Aziz (1977)

96

 

Psydium sp. #

Kumar (2013)

97

 

Psydium guajava

Hodges et al. (2005)

98

 

Syzygium cumini #

Ben-Dov (1993)

Kumar (2013)

99

Ochnaceae

Ochna sp.

Malumpy & Anderson(2011)

100

 

Ochna ciliata

Williams & Matile (2009)

101

Oleaceae

Olea europaea 

Ulgenturk & Dokuyucu (2019)

102

Phyllanthaceae

Bischofia javanica 

Wu & Wang (2019)

103

Pinaceae

Cedrus deodora

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

104

Piperaceae

Piper sp.

Hall (1924)

105

 

Piper nigrum

Gomez (1958)

106

Pittosporaceae

Pittosporum tobira

Marotta (1987)

107

Platanaceae

Platanus orientalis

Ben-Dov (1993)

108

Proteaceae

Grevillea robusta #

Ben-Dov (1970)

New Record

109

Punicaceae

Punica granatum

Bodenheimer (1926)

110

Ranunculaceae

Clematis cirrhosa

Ben-Dov (2012)

111

Rhamnaceae

Ziziphus mauritiana #

Kumar (2013)

112

Rosaceae

Amygdalus communis

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

113

 

Crataegus azarolus 

Ben-Dov (1970)

114

 

Crataegus vulgaris

Hodgson & Peronti (2012)

115

 

Cydonia sp.

DeLotto (1978)

116

 

Cydonia oblonga

Ben-Dov (1970)

117

 

Mespilus germanica

Marotta (1987)

118

 

Mespilus monogyna

Pierce (1917)

119

 

Mespilus oryneantha

Pierce (1917)

120

 

Mespilus cocinea

Pierce (1917)

121

 

Pyrus communis

Ben-Dov (1970)

122

 

Prunus dulcis

Carnero & Perez (1986)

123

 

Prunus domestica

Hodgson & Peronti (2012)

124

Rubiaceae

Pavetta sp.

DeLotto (1978)

125

 

Ixora sp.

Hamon & Mason (2017)

126

Rutaceae

Citrus aurantium

Ben-Dov (1970)

127

 

Citrus limon

Nakahara (1983) 

Talhouk (1975)

128

 

Citrus maxima

Ben-Dov (2012)

129

 

Citrus paradisi

Ben-Dov (1993)

130

 

Citrus reticulata 

Argyriou & Mourikis (1981)

131

 

Citrus sinensis 

Argyriou & Mourikis 1981)

132

 

Geijera parviflora#

New Record

133

Salicaceae

Populus alba

Marotta (1987)

134

 

Populus deltoides

Ben-Dov (1970)

135

 

Populus nigra

Pierce (1917)

136

 

Populus tremula

Pierce (1917)

137

 

Salix sp.

Ben-Dov (2012)

138

 

Salix babylonica

Hall (1923)

139

Santalaceae

Osyris alba

Kozar et al. (1991)

140

Sapindaceae

Dimocarpus longan

Carnero & Perez (1986)

141

 

Dodonaea viscosa

Hodgson (1994)

142

 

Litchi chinensis

Carnero & Perez (1986)

143

 

Nephelium lappaceum

Ben-Dov (1970)

144

 

Sapindus saponaria

Marotta (1987)

145

Sapotaceae

Sideroxylon oxyacanthurm

Hodgson (1994)

146

 

Mimusops roxburghiana

Hamon & Mason (2017)

147

Smilacaceae

Smilax aspera

Kozar& Franco (1995)

148

Strelitziaceae

Strelitzia reginae

Carnero & Perez (1986)

149

 

Strelitzia nicolai

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

150

Umbelliferae

Bupleurum sp.

Gomez (1946)

151

 

Bupleurum subfructicosum

Malumpy & Anderson (2011)

152

Vitaceae

Vitis vinifera

Balachowsky (1927)

153

Thymelaeaceae

Synaptolepis alternifolia

Hodgson (1969)

# Host records of Ceroplastes rusci in India.

 

For images - - click here

 

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