Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 December 2021 | 13(14): 20218–20248

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6508.13.14.20218-20248

#6508 | Received 01 August 2020 | Final received 09 April 2021 | Finally accepted 14 December 2021

 

 

Comprehensive checklist of algal class Chlorophyceae (sensu Fritsch, 1935) for Uttar Pradesh, India, with updated taxonomic status

 

Sushma Verma 1, Kiran Toppo 2 & Sanjeeva Nayaka 3

 

1–3 Plant Diversity, Systematics and Herbarium Division, CSIR – National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226001, India.

1 creation.sanju@gmail.com, 2 toppokiran@yahoo.co.in, 3 nayaka.sanjeeva@gmail.com (corresponding author)

 

 

 

Editor: Anonymity requested.   Date of publication: 26 December 2021 (online & print)

 

Citation: Verma, S., K. Toppo & S. Nayaka (2021). Comprehensive checklist of algal class Chlorophyceae (sensu Fritsch, 1935) for Uttar Pradesh, India, with updated taxonomic status.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(14): 20218–20248. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6508.13.14.20218-20248

 

Copyright: © Verma et al. 2021. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding:  CSIR-NBRI In-house project, OLP 0101.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Dr. Sushma Verma is working as a Senior Technical Officer in Algology Laboratory, CSIR-NBRI. Her expertise includes molecular systematics of plants. Dr. Kiran Toppo is a Senior Technical Officer in Algology Laboratory, CSIR-NBRI. Her expertise includes fresh water algal taxonomy, especially of Class Chlorophyceae. Dr. Sanjeeva Nayaka is a Senior Principal Scientist at Lichenology Laboratory, CSIR-NBRI. His expertise includes taxonomy of lichens and their bioprospection for air pollution monitoring and various biological activities.

 

Author contributions: SV and KT collected and compiled information on algae. Further, SV drafted the manuscript while KT authenticated the identities of several taxa. SN conceptualized the study, updated the current taxonomic status algae and improved the manuscript.

 

Acknowledgements: We thank the director, CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow for his constant encouragement and support under inhouse project OLP 0101; heads of the Botany Departments, and librarians of the following universities are thanked for providing access to their library: University of Allahabad, Prayagraj; Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, and University of Lucknow, Lucknow. Members of Algology Laboratory are thanked for their cooperation during the study.

 

 

 

Abstract: Uttar Pradesh is an active center for algal research in India, but regional checklists are not available. Checklists of algae reported from class Chlorophyceae (sensu Fritsch, 1935) are presented here, with  taxonomic status updated per AlgaeBase. The checklist covers algae from 17 types of habitats and includes 749 species, 166 varities and six forma, belonging to four phyla, 11 classes, 26 orders, 64 families and 161 genera. Charophyta is the dominant phylum with 519 infrageneric taxa (species, varities, forma), while Chlorophyta is represented by 389 taxa. Zygnematophyceae is the dominant class with 465 infrageneric taxa under two orders, six families and 29 genera. Chlorophyceae has 305 infrageneric taxa under five orders, 33 families, and 76 genera. Cosmarium is the most speciose genus with 163 taxa, followed by Oedogonium (79), Spirogyra (72), and Closterium (54). Our study revealed that of 75 districts in Uttar Pradesh only 40 are explored for algae, with Prayagraj and Lucknow recording 266 and 144 taxa respectively.

 

Keywords: Asia, aquatic organism, biodiversity, enumeration, gangatic plains, green algae.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Algae are defined as “oxygenic photosynthesisers other than embryophyte land plants” by Cavalier-Smith (2016). They are predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms, and are the major primary producers. Algae are ubiquitous in distribution and occur in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Fristch (1935) classified algae into 11 classes under the plant kingdom, mostly based on the pigments, reserve food and flagella. Modern classification uses few kingdoms and several phyla (Ruggiero et al. 2015). Although Fristch’s classification is obsolete, it is still popular and followed by many authors. AlgaeBase (www.algaebase.org, Guiry & Guiry 2019) currently lists 155,155 species and infraspecific taxa, under 15 phyla and 54 classes. According to Guiry (2012) there are 72,500 species of algae in the world, of which >20,000 are diatoms. From India so far 7,411 taxa of algae are known, which is 15% of the total Indian flora (Mao & Dash 2019).

Freshwater algal studies in India date back 170 years, when Griffith (1849) first reported species of Chara from West Bengal. Several workers thereafter explored the algal flora of different water bodies across India. Uttar Pradesh, the fourth largest and most populous state of India, lies between the geo-coordinates 23.866–30.416N and 77.05–84.15E. The state covers a geographical area of 2,40,9228 km2 and is divided into 75 districts. Himalayan foothills form the northern border, and the state is largely covered by plains characterized by hard rock strata and plateaus. About 7% (16,826 km2) of the geographical area is covered by forests, which include tropical thorn forest, deciduous and semi-evergreen. A total of 5,712 km2 is protected under 24 wildlife sanctuaries, three tiger reserves and one national park. The Ganga, Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Chambal, Betwa, Ken, and Son are some of the major rivers flowing through Uttar Pradesh. The state has at least 36 prominent lakes and numerous ponds. It is notable that 11 wetlands of the state are declared as wildlife sanctuaries of which eight are recognized as Ramsar sites. Uttar Pradesh has a humid subtropical climate with four seasons; temperature ranges from 42°C in summer to 7°C in winter. Annual rainfall ranges from 650 to 1,000 mm. The state has been an active center of algal research in India for nine decades, indicated by numerous publications and descriptions of several novel taxa. However, the algal enumerations published from Uttar Pradesh are scattered and a compiled list is not yet available. The aim of the present study is to prepare comprehensive checklist of algal flora for Uttar Pradesh state. Since a large number of studies are available with total taxa exceeding 2,000, the checklist is split in to several publications. Class Chlorophyceae (sensu Fritsch 1935) is presented here, with updated taxonomic status of all taxa.

Uttar Pradesh state has been explored extensively for green algae, and major works include Rao 1937, 1948; Singh 1938, 1939, 1941, 1945; Randhawa 1946; Mitra 1947; Gupta & Pandey 1950a,b, 1951a,b; Gupta 1956a,b; Venkataraman 1957, 1959; Sarma 1962, 1963; Lakshminarayana 1963; Prasad 1964, 1965, 1978; Prasad & Srivastava 1964; Pandey 1966, 1969; Ahmed 1967; Hortobagyi 1969; Prasad & Dutta 1970a,b; Shukla 1971; Khan & Rawat 1972; Prasad et al. 1973; Sarma & Shyam 1974; Bendre & Kumar 1975; Chaturvedi 1975; Kumar 1975; Prasad & Asthana 1975a,b; Rai & Kumar 1976; Chadha & Pandey 1977; Pal 1977; Chadha & Pandey 1978; Prasad & Jain 1978; Gupta & Pandey 1979; Pandey & Chaturvedi 1979; Prasad & Kumari 1979; Tiwari et al. 1979; Pandey et al. 1981; Prasad & Fatima 1981a,b,c. Gupta (2012) in his checklist included a total of 622 taxa under class Chlorophyceae from Uttar Pradesh while Suseela et al. (2015) could compile only 301 taxa including some taxa already mentioned by Gupta (2012). These numbers indicate the ambiguity regarding species richness of Chlorophyceae in the state. Moreover, there are several districts, remains unexplored to present accurate data on the algal diversity of Uttar Pradesh. Present study not only provides number of chlorophycean species but also help in identifying lacuna and potential areas for future exploration.

 

 

MATERIALS & METHODS

 

The present checklist is based on an extensive review of literature involving over 126 research papers, 10 books, monographs and chapters, 18 dissertations and Ph.D. theses deposited at various universities and research institutes. The entire list is appended as a bibliography. Taxa identified up to species, variety or forma level are included. Taxonomic identities of the taxa were checked on AlgaeBase (www.algaebase.org). Taxa are arranged alphabetically (Table 1) and their heirarchial position is provided separately (Table 2). AlgaeBase is followed for arranging taxa as per their hierarchy, which in turn mostly follows the classification system proposed by Ruggiero et al. (2015). A map of Uttar Pradesh indicating the districts explored for Chlorophyceae is provided in Figure 1.

 

RESULTS

 

The compilation of available literature resulted in 979 taxa, reduced to 921 after considering synonyms and deleting unverifiable names. It is notable that Class Chlorophyceae of Fritsch (1935) now falls under four phyla: Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Glaucophyta and Ochrophyta. 921 taxa are distributed under these four phyla, 11 classes, 26 orders, 64 families and 161 genera, 749 species, 166 varities, and six forma (Table 1). Five names are excluded from the list, as their status were could not be ascertained from Algaebase (pers. com. with Guiry MDR): Arnoldiella glomerata Fritsch; Cladophora furotosa (Griff) Harvey; Draparnaldia indica J.P.Sinha & Noor; Spirogyra hyalina var. gracilis (Hassall) Kützing; and S. reservoiraensis R.N.Singh. The study revealed that phylum Charophyta is most dominant in Uttar Pradesh with 519 infrageneric taxa (species, varieties, forma) under four classes, six orders, 10 families, and 37 genera. Whereas Chlorophyceae is the most diverse phylum with 389 infrageneric taxa under four classes, 17 orders, 51 families, and 120 genera (Table 2). Among the 11 classes Ulvophyceae of phylum Chlorophyta is diverse with six orders followed by Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae with five orders each. However, Zygnematophyceae of phylum Charophyta is the most dominant class with maximum infrageneric taxa totaling up to 465 under two orders, six families, and 29 genera. It is followed by Chlorophyceae with 305 infrageneric taxa under five orders, 33 families, and 76 genera. Order Chlamydomonadales of phylum Chlorophyta is the most diverse in the state with 17 families, 27 genera, and 61 species and varieties, followed by Sphaeropleales with nine families, 33 genera, and 112 species and varities. Desmidiaceae (phylum Charophyta) is the diverse family with 16 genera and 277 species and varieties, followed by Hydrodictyaceae with nine genera and 21 taxa, and Chaetophoraceae with seven genera and 29 species and varieties. Cosmarium is the most speciose genera with 163 taxa followed by Oedogonium (79), Spirogyra (72), Closterium (54) while several genera had less than five taxa.

It is observed that algal samples were collected from as many as 17 habitats including ditches, tanks to river. Among them maximum number of Chlorophycean algae belonged to ponds with 621 taxa, followed by lakes (394 taxa) and river (236 taxa). The study revealed that out of 75 districts in Uttar Pradesh, algal exploration has been carried out only in 40 districts (Figure 1). The district Prayagraj (= Allahabad) recorded the maximum number of taxa (266 nos.) followed by Lucknow (144 nos.), Gonda (141 nos.), and Saharanpur (139 nos.). The species, variety or forma epithet of following taxa are based on the prominent localities in the state - Bulbochaete allahabadensis, Cosmarium awadhense, Oedogonium areolatum var. gorakhporense, Pleurotaenium varanasiense, Scenedesmus arcuatus var. allahabadensis, Spirogyra chakiaensis var. lucknowensis, S. daedalea f. oudhensis, S. oudhensis, Volvox rousseletii var. lucknowensis, Zygnema gorakhporense, and Z. oudhense.

It is clear from the study that 35 districts of Uttar Pradesh are either unexplored or the literature unavailable. The major algal research centres in Uttar Pradesh are mostly located in Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi; University of Allahabad, Allahabad; University of Lucknow and CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow. Therefore, much attention was paid to easily accessible region in and around Allahabad, Lucknow, and Prayagraj while other districts are neglected. Among unexplored districts Lakhimpur, Siddarth Nagar, and Maharajganj are in the Tarai region of the state, which are wetter regions due to mansoon flooding. The district Sonbhadra located in the south-east of Uttar Pradesh is a biodiversity rich part of the state but so far no records of algae available from here. The south-western part of Uttar Pradesh can be considered as potential region under explored for algal flora. This region consists of districts such as Agra, Eath, Etawah, and Kannauj with wetlands declared as protected areas such as Patna Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarasai Nawar Wetland, Lakh Bahosi Sanctuary, National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary, and Sursarovar Sanctuary. Currently, one each species is reported from Agra and Kannauj districts. 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

The enumeration of 921 taxa under phylum Chlorophyta covering only 40 districts of Uttar Pradesh in the present study is certainly remarkable indicating the presence of rich diversity of this phylum in the state. It can be noted that earlier studies by Gupta et al. (2012) and Suseela et al. (2015) have estimated low number of algae from the state. This rich diversity may be due to the presence of numerous small and large water bodies with diverse physico-chemical characteristics and seasonal variations. Floristic exploration in the unexplored areas of the state could be an important step towards unraveling the true representation of the algal wealth in the state.

 

 

Table 1. Checklist of Chlorophycean (sensu Fritsch, 1935) taxa recorded from Uttar Pradesh. The names in the brackets are originally annotated names which are now synonyms: Habitat: A—Canal | B—Dam | C—Ditch | D—Lake | E—Paddy Field | F—Pond | G—Pool | H—Puddle | I—Reservoir | J—River | K—River Bank | L—Sewage | M—Soil | N—Stone | O—Stream | P—Tank | Q—Water Fall. Localities: AGR—Agra | AYO—Ayodhya | BAH—Bahraich | BBK—Barabanki | BDN—Badaun | BLI—Ballia | BLR—Balrampur | BRY—Bareilly | BST—Basti | DEO—Deoria | FRK—Farrukhabad | GKP—Gorakhpur | GON—Gonda | GZB—Ghaziabad | HMP—Hamirpur | HRD—Hardoi | JHS—Jhansi | JLN—Jalaun | KNJ—Kannauj | KNP—Kanpur | KSM—Kaushambi | LKO—Lucknow | LTP—Lalitpur | MHB—Mahoba | MAU—Mau | MRD—Moradabad | MRT—Meerut | MRZ—Mirzapur | PLB—Pilibhit | PRG—Prayagraj | PRT—Pratapgarh | RBL—Raebareli | RMP—Rampur | SHP—Shahjahanpur | SHR—Saharanpur | SKN—Sant Kabir Nagar | STP—Sitapur | SVT—Shravasti | SUL—Sultanpur | VRN—Varanasi.

 

Currently accepted name

Habitat

Localities

1

Actinastrum fluviatile (J.L.B. Schröder) Fott (=Actinastrum hantzschii var. fluviatile J.B.L. Schroder)

F

HMR

2

A. hantzschii Lagerheim

F, D, J

BDN, BLR, MHB, MRD, RMP, SHP, FRK

3

Actinotaenium colpopelta (Brébisson ex W. Archer) Compère (=Cosmarium viride Joshua)

D, F

PRG

4

A. cucurbitinum (Bisset) Teiling (=Cosmarium cucurbitinum (Bisset) Lütkemüller)

D, F

PRG

5

A. globosum (Bulnheim) Kurt Förster ex Compère (=Cosmarium globosum Bulnheim)

D, F

PRG

6

A. inconspicuum (West & G.S. West) Teiling

G

BRY

7

A. turgidum (Brébisson ex Ralfs) Teiling (=Cosmarium turgidum Brébisson ex Ralfs)

F, K, D, J

BBK, BRY, JLN

8

Acutodesmus acutiformis (Schröder) Tsarenko & D.M. John (=Scenedesmus acutiformis Schroder)

B, D, F, J

KNP, LKO, SHR

9

Aegagropila calcicola (F.E. Fritsch) C. Boedeker (=Cladophorella calcicola Fritsch)

A, D, F, H

BLR 

10

A. linnaei Kützing (=Cladophora aegagropila (Linnaeus) Trevisan; Cladophora profunda var. nordstedtiana Brand)

A, D, F, H

BLR, PRG

11

Aegagropilopsis clavuligera (Grunow) Boedeker (=Cladophora clavuligera Grunow)

A, D, F, H

BLR

12

Ankistrodesmus densus Korshikov (=Ankistrodesmus spiralis var. fasciculatus G.M. Smith)

D, J, F, K, I

MHB, SHR

13

A. falcatus (Corda) Ralfs

I, F, M

PRG, JLN, LKO, LTP, MHB, SHR

14

A. falcatus var. radiatus Lemmermann

M

PRG, BBK, JLN, KSM, KNP, LKO, SUL, VRN

15

A. sigmoideus (Rabenhorst) Brühl & Biswas

D

LTP

16

A. spiralis (W.B. Turner) Lemmermann

J, F, K, I

BAH, LKO, LTP, MHB, SHR

17

Aphanochaete magnum Godward

F

KNP, LKO

18

A. polychaete (Hansgirg) F.E. Fritch

F

DEO, GKP

19

A. repens A. Braun

F

PRG, HMR, LKO, VRN,

20

Arnoldiella chelonum (Collins) C. Boedeker (=Basicladia chelonum (Collins) W.E. Hoffmann & Tilden)

J

KNP

21

Arthrodesmus arcuatus var. minus Scott & Prescott

F, D

LKO

22

Asterococcus limneticus G.M. Smith

K

BAH

23

Balticola droebakensis (Wollenweber) Droop (=Haematococcus droebakensis Wollenweber)

F, J

VRN

24

Botryococcus braunii Kützing

I, F

PRG, BAH, LKO, SHR, STP

25

Bulbochaete affinis Hirn

D

PRT

26

B. allahabadensis G.L. Tiwari

A, C

PRG

27

B. indica P. Sarma (=Bulbochaete pseudoareolata Kargupta)

A, K, J

BAH, GON

28

B. intermedia De Bary ex Hirn

D

PRT

29

B. lagoensis Wittrock ex Hirn

D

PRT

30

B. nana Wittrock ex Hirn

F

PRG

31

B. polyandria Cleve ex Hirn

D

PRT

32

B. rectangularis Wittrock ex Hirn

D

PRT

33

B. repanda Wittrock ex Hirn

D

PRT

34

B. reticulata Nordstedt

D

PRT

35

B. triangularis C.-C. Jao

D

PRT

36

B. varians Wittrock ex Hirn

C, D

PRT, RBL

37

B. nordstedtii Wittrock ex Hirn

F, A, P

BAH, GON

38

Carteria intermedia A.K. Mitra

E, F

PRG

39

C. lunzensis Pascher & Jahoda

E, J

PRG

40

Cephaleuros virescens Kunze ex E.M. Fries

J

LKO

41

Chaetopeltis orbicularis Berthold

A, J

MHB

42

Chaetophora lobata Schrank (=Chaetophora incrassata Hazen)

B, F

DEO, GKP

43

Chaetophoropsis attenuata (Hazen) B. Wen Liu, Qian Xiong, X. Dong Liu, Z. Yu Hu & G. Xiang Liu (=Chaetophora attenuata Hazen)

F

PRG, BAH, DEO, GKP, LKO

44

C. elegans (Roth) B. Wen Liu, Qian Xiong, X. Dong Liu, Z. Yu Hu & G. Xiang Liu (=Chaetophora elegans (Roth) C. Agardh)

F, K

PRG, BBK, HRD, MAU, RBL, BRY, SUL, VRN

45

C. pisiformis (Roth) B. Wen Liu, Qian Xiong, X. Dong Liu, Z. Yu Hu & G. Xiang Liu (=Chaetophora pisiformis (Roth) C. Agardh)

K, D, P

KNP, LKO, MHB

46

C. pisiformis var. hamata (C.-C. Jao) B. Wen Liu, Qian Xiong, X. Dong Liu, Z. Yu Hu & G. Xiang Liu (=Chaetophora pisiformis var. hamata C.-C. Jao)

K, F, D, P

DEO, GKP

47

Chaetosphaeridium globosum (Nordstedt) Klebahn

F, J

MHB

48

C. ovalis G.M. Smith

F, J

MHB

49

C. pringsheimii Klebahn

F

DEO, GKP

50

Chara bharadwajae Y.S.R.K. Sarma & M. Khan

D, F, O, J

SUL

51

C. braunii C.C. Gmelin

D, F, O, J

BRY

52

C. contraria A. Braun ex Kützing

D, F, O, J

BRY

53

C. corallina Klein ex C.L. Willdenow

D, F, O

SUL

54

C. diaphana (F.J.F. Meyen) R.D. Wood (=Chara zeylanica var. diaphana (F. Meyen) R.D. Wood)

D, F, O, J

BRY

55

C. fibrosa C. Agardh ex Bruzelius

A, D, F, O, J

BRY, SUL

56

C. globularis Thuiller

D, F, O, J

BRY, SUL

57

C. hookeri A. Braun (=Chara fibrosa var. hookeri (A. Braun) R.D. Wood)

D, F, J

SUL

58

C. hydropithys Reichenbach (=Chara fibrosa var. hydropithys (Reiscenbach) R.D. Wood)

B, D, F, O, J

BRY, SUL

59

C. nuda B.S. Pal

D, O, J

BRY

60

C. setosa Klein ex C.L. Willdenow

D, F, O, J

BRY

61

C. vulgaris Linnaueus

D, F, O, J

BRY, SUL

62

C. zeylanica Willdenow

D, O, J

BRY, MRD, SUL

63

Characiellopsis anophelesi (M.O.P. Iyengar & M.O.T. Iyengar) M.O.P. Iyengar (=Characium anopheles M.O.P. Iyengar)

A, O

PRG

64

Characium acuminatum A. Braun

F, J, O

PRG

65

C. orissicum Philipose

A, O

PRG

66

C. pringsheimii A. Braun

J, P

KNP

67

Chlamydocapsa planctonica (West & G.S. West) Fott (=Gloeocystis gigas (Kützing) Lagerheim; Gloeocystis planctonica (West & G.S. West) Lemmermann)

D, F, P

KSM, LKO, MHB

68

Chlamydomonas angulosa E.O. Dill

E, F, H

PRG

69

C. debaryana var. atactogama (Korshikov) Gerloff (= Chlamydomonas atactogama Korshikov)

A, J, F, L

KNP

70

C. globosa J.W. Snow

J, F, D

LKO, VRN

71

C. gloeogama Korshikov

F

PRG

72

C. grandistigma A.K. Mitra

E, J, F

PRG

73

C. indica A.K. Mitra

E, F, A

PRG

74

C. intermedia Chodat

E, J

PRG

75

C. iyengarii A.K. Mitra

D

PRG

76

C. pertusa Chodat

C, F, J

KNP

77

C. reinhardtii P.A. Dangeard

F, L

KNP

78

C. sphagnicola (F.E.Fritsch) F.E. Fritsch & H. Takeda

D, F

KNP

79

C. sphagnophila Pascher

F, J

SUL

80

C. sphagnophila var. indica (A.K. Mitra) Ettl (=Chlamydomonas eugamatos var. indica Mitra)

E, F

PRG

81

Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck [Beijerinck]

F, K, J

PRG, JHS, JLN

82

Chlorochytrium lemnae Cohn (=Chlorochytrium limnanthemum (D.D. Cunningham) G.S. West)

J

PRG

83

Chlorococcum infusionum (Schrank) Meneghini (=Chlorococcum humicola (Nägeli) Rabenhorst)

D, F, J, K

BAH, JLN, PRG, AYO, MHB

84

C. vitiosum Printz

K

FRK

85

Chlorogonium elongatum (P.A. Dangeard) France

F, H

MRZ

86

C. spirales Scherffel & Pascher

J

VRN

87

Choricystis parasitica (K. Brandt) Pröschold & Darienko (=Chlorella parasitica (F. Brandt) Beijerinck)

F

PRG

88

Cladophora cristata Kützing

A, D, F, H, J

PRG, BLR, SUL

89

C. crystallina (Roth) Kützing

A, D, F, H

BLR

90

C. flexuosa (O.F. Müller) Kützing

J

BLR

91

C. fracta (O.F. Müller ex Vahl) Kützing

J

PRG, JLN, VRN

92

C. glomerata (Linnaeus) Kützing

J, F, A

PRG, BDN, BRY, BAH, BLR, SHP, SUL, VRN

93

C. gracilis Kützing

A, D, F, H, J

BLR

94

C. intermedia Foslie

A, D, F, H

BLR

95

C. rivularis (Linnaeus) Kuntze (=Cladophora insignis (C. Agardh) Kützing; Cladophora oligoclona (Kützing) Kützing)

A, C, D, F, H, P

PRG, LKO, VRN, BLR

96

Closteriopsis longissima (Lemmermann) Lemmermann (=Closterium didymotocum var. tropicum West & G.S. West)

F

PRG

97

Closterium acerosum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs

K, J, F, D

PRG, BAH, LTP, LKO, PLB, MRT, VRN

98

C. acerosum var. elongatum West

D, E, F, J

PRG

99

C. acutum Brébisson

C, F

GZB, PLB, SHP

100

C. baillyanum (Brébisson ex Ralfs) Brébisson

F

BRY

101

C. braunii Reinsch

F

PLB

102

C. calosporum var. maius (West & G.S. West) Willi Krieger

D, B, K, J

PRG, BAH, LTP, LKO

103

C. calosporum Wittrock

D, B, K, F, J

PRG, BAH, LTP, LKO

104

C. closterioides (Ralfs) A. Louis & Peeters (=Closterium libellula Focke ex Nordstedt)

E

PRG

105

C. cornu Ehrenberg ex Ralfs

F

BRY

106

C. cornu var. javanicum Gutwinski

F

BRY

107

C. croasdaleae A.K.M.N. Islam

D

BRY

108

C. delpontei (Klebs) Wolle

J, D

BRY

109

C. dianae Ehrenberg ex Ralfs

F, D

PRG, BAH, BRY, MHB

110

C. dianae var. arcuatum (Brebisson ex Ralfs) Rabenhorst (=Closterium arcuatum Brébisson ex Ralfs)

A

BBK

111

C. dianae var. minus F. Ducellier

F, D

MHB

112

C. dianae var. pseudodianae (J. Roy) Willi Krieger (=Closterium pseudodianae J. Roy)

D, F

MHB

113

C.  ehrenbergii Meneghini ex Ralfs

D, F

PRG, BAH, BBK, GZB, VRN

114

C. gracile Brébisson ex Ralfs

C, D, F

MHB

115

C. incurvum Brébisson

B, I, F

SHR

116

C. intermedium Ralfs

F, D

BRY

117

C. intermedium var. erectum Grönblad

F, D

BRY

118

C. jenneri var. cynthia (De Notaris) Petlovany (=Closterium cynthia De Notaris)

K, F

BBK, BRY, PLB

119

C. kuetzingii Brébisson

F, B, K

PRG, MFB, LTP, LKO

120

C. lagoense Nordstedt

F, A

BRY

121

C. lanceolatum Kützing ex Ralfs

B, K, J

LKO

122

C. lanceolatum var. parvum West & West

B, K, J

LKO

123

C. leibleinii Kützing ex Ralfs

K, D, F, F

PRG, GON, GKP

124

C. lineatum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs

F

BAH

125

C. littorale F. Gay

D, B, K, F, J

GON, JHS, LKO

126

C. longissima var. tropica West & G.S. West

F

PRG

127

C. lunula Ehrenberg & Hemprich ex Ralfs

J

LKO

128

C. lunula var. biconvexum Schimidle

J

BRY

129

C. lunula var. massartii (De Wild.) Willi Krieger

J

BRY

130

C. moniliferum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs

K, A, D, F, J

PRG, GZB, GKP, MHB, BRY, BDN, RMP, SHP

131

C. navicula (Brébisson) Lütkemüller

H

SUL

132

C. nematodes var. tumidum G.S. West

F, J

SHP

133

C. parvulum Nägeli

D, J, P

GON, KNP, LKO, VRN,

134

C. parvulum var. angustum West & G.S. West

D, P

GON, KNP, LKO

135

C. peracerosum F. Gay

D, K, B

JHS, LKO, SKN

136

C. pleurodermatum West & G.S. West

J

BRY

137

C. porrectum Nordetedt

F, P

BBK, BRY, KNP

138

C. porrectum var. angustatum West & G.S. West

F, P

LKO

139

C. praelongum Brébisson

F, H

BRY

140

C. pritchardianum W. Archer

D, F, J, K

GZB, GKP, JHS, LKO

141

C. pusillum Hantzsch (=Closterium pusillum var. monolithum Wittrock)

J, M

BRY, VRN

142

C. ralfsii Brébisson ex Ralfs

F

BRY

143

C. ralfsii var. hybridum Rabenhorst

F

BRY

144

C. rectimarginatum A.M. Scott & Prescott

D, J

LKO

145

C. rectimarginatum var. maius N.D. Kamat

D, J

JHS, MHB

146

C. recurvum Prescott

D

GON

147

C. strigosum Brébisson

F, H, D

BRY

148

C. tumidum L.N. Johnson

K

PRG, GON, VRN

149

C. turgidum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs

F, J

BAH, JHS

150

C. venus Kützing ex Ralfs

K, F

PRG, LKO

151

Coccomyxa subsphaerica Chodat & Jaag

F

PRG

152

C. subsphaerica var. terrestre A. Mitra

F

PRG

153

Coelastrum astroideum De Notaris

F

SHR

154

C. cambricum var. intermedium (Bohlin) G.S. West

B, D, J

JHS, LTP, MHB, SHR

155

C. cambricum W. Archer

D

AGR, BST, KSM, LTP, MHB, SHR

156

C. microporum Nägeli

F

PRG, GZB, JHS, KNP

157

C. proboscideum Bohlin

K, F, D, P

JHS, LKO

158

C. verrucosum (Reinsch) Reinsch (=Coelastrum morus West & G.S. West)

I, F

SHR

159

Coenocystis asymmetrica Komárek

I

SHR

160

Coleochaete conchata K. Möbius

F

DEO, GKP

161

C. irregularis Pringsheim

A

PRG, BBK

162

C. nitellarum Jost

J

MHB

163

C. orbicularis E.G. Pringsheim

J, A, F

PRG, LKO

164

C. pseudosoluta Gauthier-Lièvre

D, P

BBK, MHB

165

C. pulvinata A. Braun

D, F

DEO, GKP

166

C. pulvinata var. minor A. Braun

F

DEO, GKP

167

C. scutata Brébisson

F

BAH, GKP, KNP, MHB, SUL

168

C. soluta (Brébisson) Pringsheim

D

BRY, GON, MHB

169

C. soluta var. minor Hansgirg

D, F

DEO, GKP

170

Comasiella arcuata var. platydisca (G.M. Smith) E. Hegewald & M. Wolf (=Scenedesmus arcuatus var. platydiscus G.M. Smith)

J

KNP

171

Conochaete comosa Klebahn

F, J

PRT

172

Cosmarium abbreviatum Raciborski

B

LTP

173

C. amoenum Brebisson ex Ralfs

F

PRG

174

C. amoenum var. mediolaeve Nordstedt

D, F

PRG

175

C. anceps P. Lundell

F, J

BRY, PLB

176

C. angulatum (Perty) Rabenhorst

D

PRG

177

C. angulosum Brébisson

F, D, J, K

PRG

178

C. angulosum var. concinnum (Rabenhorst) West & G.S. A673West

F, D, K

BST, LTP, SKN

179

C. angulosum var. euastroides (Delponte) Krieger & Gerloff

 D

PRG

180

C. askenasyi Schmidle

D, J

GON, SHR

181

C. auriculatum Reinsch

D, P

PRG, BAH, GON, LKO

182

C. auriculatum var. bogoriense C. Bernard (=Cosmarium subauriculatum (C. Bernard) Bourrelly; Cosmarium subauriculatum var. bogoriense (C. Bernard) Bourrelly)

D

PRG

183

C. awadhense B.N. Prasad & R.K. Mehrotra

F, J

GZB, GON, JHS, LKO, SKN

184

C. baileyi Wolle (=Cosmarium depressum Bailey)

B, D, F, J

PRG, BBK, GKP, LKO

185

C. bengalense W.B. Turner

D, F, J

PRG

186

C. bioculatum Brébisson ex Ralfs

D, F

PRG

187

C. bioculatum var. hians West and G.S. West

F

PRG

188

C. biretum Brébisson ex Ralfs

F, D

PRG

189

C. bituberculatum F.E. Fritsch & Rich

D, J

PRG, SHP

190

C. blytii Wille

J

PRG, BST, MAU, DEO

191

C. botrytis Meneghini ex Ralfs

J

BBK

192

C. botrytis var. mediolaeve West

I, J

SHR

193

C. botrytis var. paxillosporum West & G.S. West

D

PRG

194

C. braunii Reinsch

F, J

BRY

195

C. broomei Thwaites ex Ralfs

J, I

PRG, HMR

196

C. circulare Reinsch (=Cosmarium lundellii var. circulare (Reinsch) Willi Krieger)

A, D, F

GKP, PRG, MRT, PLB

197

C. connatum Brébisson ex Ralfs

D, J

PRG, LKO, SHP

198

C. connatum var. depressum Irenee-Marie

D

PRG

199

C. conspersum Ralfs

F

PRG

200

C. conspersum var. latum (Brebisson) West & G.S. West

D, F

PRG

201

C. conspersum var. scottii Crosdale & A.M. Scott

F

PRG

202

C. constrictum Delponte

D

PRG

203

C. contractum O. Kirchner

F, J

KNP

204

C. contractum var. minutum (Delponte) Coesel

J

SHP

205

C. contractum var. pachydermum A.M. Scott & Prescott

F, J

JHS

206

C. crenatum Ralfs ex Ralfs (=Cosmarium ordinatum E. Larsen; Euastrum sinuosum Kützing)

C, F

BST, PRG, SHR

207

C. cucumis Corda ex Ralfs

F, D

GKP

208

C. cucurbitinum var. truncatum Willi Krieger

D, F

BST, JHS

209

C. cuneatum Joshua

D, F

BRY

210

C. cyclicum P. Lundell

C, D

SHR

211

C. cyclicum var. nordstedtianum (Reinsch) West

D, J

BRY

212

C. decoratum West & G.S. West

I, D, F

BST, GON, SHR, SKN

213

C. depressum var. apertum (W.B. Turner) M. Hirano

J, H, B

JHS

214

C. difficile Lütkemüller

F

SHR

215

C. divergens Krieger

D, F, J

PRG

216

C. dubium O. Borge

F

MHB

217

C. formosulum Hoff

F, D

PRG, GON

218

C. formosulum var. nathorstii (Boldt) West & G.S. West

F, D

GKP

219

C. furcatospermum West & G.S. West

J, K

BBK

220

C. garrolense J. Roy & Bisset

F

SHR

221

C. gonioides West & G.S. West

B, F

GZB, MRD

222

C. granatum Brébisson ex Ralfs

K, D, J

PRG, BRY, HMR, LKO

223

C. granatum var. nordstedtii Hansgirg

H

MRD

224

C. granatum var. ocellatum West & G.S. West

K, D, J

PRG

225

C. granatum var. rotundatum Willi Krieger

B, F

SHR

226

C. hammeri Reinsch

F

PRG, GKP, BRY, MAU, DEO

227

C. hammeri var. homalodermum (Nordstedt) West & G.S. West

A, F

BAH

228

C. hammeri var. Schmidlei Grönblad & A.M. Scott

F

PRG, GKP

229

C. humile (Nordstedt) De Toni

B, F

BBK

230

C. impressulum Elfving

B, K, D, F

PRG, BAH, SHR

231

C. isthmochondrum Nordstedt

B, F

BRY

232

C. javanicum Nordstedt (=Cosmarium maculatum W.B. Turner)

K, D, J

GKP, HMR, STP

233

C. laeve Rabenhorst

D, J

PRG, SHR

234

C. logiense Bisset

D, B

PRG

235

C. lundellii Delponte

D, F

PRG, GZB, LTP, PRT

236

C. lundellii var. corruptum (W.B. Turner) West & G.S. West (=Cosmarium corruptum W.B. Turner)

F, J

LKO, MHB, PRG

237

C. lundellii var. ellipticum West & G.S. West

D

PRG, LKO

238

C. lundellii var. subellipticum Messikommer

D, F

PRG, BST, BBK, GKP, LKO

239

C. margaritatum (P. Lundell) J. Roy & Bisset

K, D, F

PRG, LKO

240

C. medioscrobiculatum var. egranulatum Gutwinsk

D

PRG

241

C. meneghinii