Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 December 2022 | 14(12): 22309–22328

 

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6330.14.12.22309-22328

#6330 | Received 25 June 2020 | Final received 23 January 2022 | Finally accepted 07 November 2022

 

 

Threatened flora of Uttarakhand: an update

 

D.S. Rawat 1, Satish Chandra 2  & Preeti Chaturvedi 3

 

1,3 Department of Biological Sciences, College of Basic Sciences & Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145, India.

2 Department of Botany, Government Degree College, Tiuni, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248199, India. 

1 drds_rawat@yahoo.com (corresponding author), 2 satishchandrasemwal07@gmail.com, 3 an_priti@yahoo.co.in

 

 

 

 

Editor: Afroz Alam, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan, India.         Date of publication: 26 December 2022 (online & print)

 

Citation: Rawat, D.S., S. Chandra & P. Chaturvedi (2022). Threatened flora of Uttarakhand: an update. Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(12): 22309–22328. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.6330.14.12.22309-22328

 

Copyright: © Rawat et al. 2022. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding:  No funding was received from any agency for this work.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Dr D.S. Rawat has been working on different aspects of flora of Uttarakhand since 1987 and has trekked extensively in Uttarakhand for collection and photographing the plants. He has described four new species, several new records to India and western Himalaya, together with many rediscoveries.  Dr Satish Chandra is working as assistant professor in the Department of Botany, Government Degree College Tyuni, Dehadun, Uttarakhand, India. He completed his PhD in plant taxonomy by working on the family Caryophyllaceae and his research interests include plant nomenclature, biodiversity and ethnobotany.  Dr P. Chaturvedi is professor & head, Department of Biological Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. In vitro morphogenesis, conservation biology of threatened medicinal plants, plant biodiversity and bioprospecting of bryophytes are key research areas of her interest. She has successfully developed micropropagation protocols of several medicinal plants viz., Centella asiatica, Aconitum balfourii, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Polygonatum verticillatum and Rheum emodii.

 

Author contributions: Concept of work and compilation of data: DSR; writing article: DSR, SC, PC.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the authorities of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar, India for providing basic facilities.

 

 

 

Abstract: Encompassing 1.69% land area of India, Uttarakhand State sustains more than 25% species of flowering plants of India reflecting richness of flora.  Large numbers of species in the state are threatened and several sources have come up with their own lists of threatened species using different threat categories leading to ambiguity.  This communication attempts to compile a complete list of threatened Angiosperm species from eleven authentic sources with updated nomenclature, systematic position, original sources, threat assessment, elevational and global distribution.  A total of 290 species belonging to 176 genera, 63 families, and 29 orders are listed which represent about 6% of the total flora.  Elevational distribution of species shows that the 2–3 km elevation zone harbors more than half of the threatened flora (52.14%) and more than 44% endemic species despite the fact that maximum species richness is known in the 1–2 km elevation zone.  Perusal of literature shows that selection of species for micropropagation is skewed towards medicinal plants rather than only threat status of a species.  A disparity exists in two important sources (IUCN Red List 2020–21 and Indian Red Data Book) listing threatened taxa with only six species common to both.  Eight additional species in IUCN Red List 2020–21 and 49 additional species in Indian Red Data Book are not included and vice versa.  267 species listed as threatened in various sources are not even evaluated by recent IUCN Redlist guidelines and thus warrant their immediate assessment to understand their correct present status in nature.

 

Keywords: Angiosperms, assessment, Indian Red Data Book, IUCN Red List, micropropagation, plants.

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The actual number of all extant living species on Earth is yet not exactly known but we are now beginning to understand this enormous diversity of life on Earth (Wilson 1999).  Though, the estimates range from 8.6 million to 15 millions of eukaryotes and trillions of prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) living on Earth (Mora et al. 2011; Hinchliff et al. 2015; Locey & Lenon 2016; Larsen et al. 2017), only about 1.8 million are named and listed in Catalogue of Life 2020 (Roskov et al. 2020).  The Earth’s biosphere has already entered into the sixth mass extinction, majorly because of human impact.  With a 1,000 fold increase in the natural rate of extinction of species (Pimm et al. 2014; De Vos et al. 2015) it is no exaggeration to state that a large number of species will disappear from Earth without even getting any name.  Among the estimated described 21,37,939 species 31,030 species are already facing the threat of extinction owing to various natural and anthropogenic factors (IUCN Redlist 2020).  Following the IUCN data, perhaps about 20% of all existing species might become extinct within the next few decades and 40% or more by the end of the present century (Pimm et al. 2014; Kew 2016; Pimm & Raven 2017).

Green Plants (Viridiplantae) are among the better known groups of organisms and dominated by more than 0.36 million Angiosperms (flowering plants) of which 38,445 species have been assessed for threat categories.  The results show that 148 are already extinct from the wild, 15,624 are threatened and 2,594 do not have adequate data to assess threats to them as per IUCN Red List 2020–21 (https://www.iucnredlist.org/search). India is one of the top 10 species-rich nations of the world and 18,666 species of flowering plants are known within its territory (Mao & Dash 2019).  Till date, 2020 species of flowering plants of India have been assessed as per the IUCN Redlist criteria according to which six species are extinct, two are extinct from the wild, 411 are threatened (84 Critically Endangered, 180 Endangered, 147 Vulnerable), 1601 are not threatened while 93 do not have adequate data today to assess threat (https://www.iucnredlist.org/search). 

Uttarakhand is a small (53,483 km2), mountain dominated state of India, located in the Himalayan global biodiversity hot spot and constitutes the easternmost part of the western Himalayan phytogeographical province of India (Balakrishnan 1996).  Following Takhtajan (1986) and Welk (2016) Uttarakhand embraces two floristic kingdoms- ‘Holarctic’ (above 1–1.5 km elevation) and ‘Paleotropic’ (below 1km elevation) and surrounded by western Tibetan provinces in the north and the Gangetic province in the south.  Three major floristic regions represented in Uttarakhand are western Himalayan province at the higher elevation, eastern Himalayan province in mid-elevations, and the Gangetic province at lower elevations and plains, while the arid western Tibetan province also finger-in at the head of anterior valleys (Welk 2016).

Uttarakhand is enriched with 24,303 km2 of forests covering 45.44% of its total geographical area and about 4800 wild taxa of seed plants within 1,400 genera of 215 families (Uniyal et al. 2007; Pusalkar & Srivastava 2018; India State of Forest 2019).  Representation of different phytogeographical elements, extensive elevation gradient (ca. 200–7,817 m), mountain dominated terrain, and enormous diversity in microclimatic conditions have resulted in a high diversity of angiosperm flora which accounts for nearly 25% of total Indian flora in only 1.69% geographical area of the country.  Owing to its high species richness of Angiosperms, the flora of Uttarakhand can also be assumed to having many threatened species (Images 1–24).  In addition to these species, 107 species, endemic to Uttarakhand (Singh et al. 2015; Pusalkar & Srivastava 2018) are also important for conservation due to their restricted distribution in the nature.

It has already been pointed out by Pimm et al. (2014) and reiterated by Raven & Wackernagel (2020) that the species most likely to become extinct are by definition the rare ones, and most undescribed species are relatively rare.  Obviously, the first step towards conservation is to know which species are rare ones (threatened species).  Considering the risk of extinction of the species IUCN has prepared categories and criteria for classification of species under different threat categories (IUCN 2012).  It played a pivotal role in prioritizing the threatened species and in the drafting of their conservation plans.  IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species is revised and updated thrice in each calendar year and country-wise lists are available in it.

Biodiversity of India is confronting various threats due to climate change, global temperature rise, habitat destruction, poor land use practices, invasive alien species, over-exploitation of the resources and environmental pollutions (Barik et al. 2018) and flora of Uttarakhand is no exception to this (Pusalkar and Srivastava 2018).  Red Data Book of Indian Plants (Nayar & Sastry 1987–90) is an incomplete document wherein data on some threatened vascular plants were provided on the basis of herbarium history of these species.  Later, Rao et al. (2003) listed 1,255 species of threatened Indian vascular plants on the basis of the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants.  While these lists or data are available at country level, an updated list of threatened and endemic species  of the  species-rich state of Uttarakhand is yet to be compiled.  Various scientific publications (Singh et al. 2010; Balakrishna et al. 2012; Bisht et al. 2013) often mention different species as threatened without correctly justifying their threat categories by appropriate source references.  The present work is an attempt to provide a recent and complete list of threatened Angiosperm species with updated nomenclature and systematic position with original sources.

 

 

Materials and Methods

 

The earliest holistic endeavour of publishing available data on threatened vascular species of India was attempted by the Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, GoI and published as ‘Indian Red Data Books volume-1–3’ (Nayar & Sastry 1987–90) wherein important data on 602 species were published. The species listed in these volumes and occurring in Uttarakhand are included in our list of threatened species (Table 1, column 1) with threat status (indicated by superscript ‘1’ with threat status in column 2 of Table 1; e.g., R1).  Similarly, distribution of all 1,215 angiosperm species listed in Rao et al. (2003) was studied carefully and all species known in Uttarakhand were included  in table-1 and shown by superscript ‘2’ (e.g., E2).  The species listed in recent IUCN Red List 2020–21 (https://www.iucnredlist.org/) of threatened species for India known to be occurring in Uttarakhand are included and status listed in IUCN Red List is shown by superscript ‘3’ (e.g., CR3). Data Deficient species (DD) in this red list are also included here on account of their rarity due to which adequate data is not available for their assessment.  The recent version of IUCN Red List (IUCN Red List 2020) now has the facility to search threatened species of a particular state of India and the species found in this list are also included with their status shown by superscript ‘3A’ (e.g., CR3A).  Though, IUCN Red List for India and IUCN Red List of Uttarakhand are obtained from the same data source, they show a few differences due to which these two search results are shown differently.  Ved et al. (2003) have published threatened medicinal plant species of Indian western Himalaya after threat assessment based on IUCN criteria. Those species which are listed in it and known in Uttarakhand are included in table-1 and threat assessment is shown by superscript ‘4’ (e.g., EN4). Internationally, appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) play an important role in regulated trade of threatened species.  All the species listed in CITES appendices (2019) and known in Uttarakhand are also included in Table 1.  Since no specific threat status is mentioned in CITES appendices, in column 2 status is shown as ‘1A’ (for species listed in Appendix 1) or ‘2A’ (species listed in appendix-2) with superscript ‘5’ (e.g., 2A5).

The first volume of Flora of Uttarakhand (Pusalkar & Srivastava 2018) has also provided a list of threatened species and endemic species, separately, with threat status following IUCN Red List, and these are also included in Table 1.  Endemic species are included in our list with ‘VU’ status, following Pusalkar & Srivastava (2018), based on their small area of occurrence in the world.  Uniyal et al. (2007) also listed threatened species of Uttarakhand with checklist of seed plants of Uttarakhand and these species are included and shown by the superscript ‘7’ (e.g., R7).  Similarly, the species indicated as threatened in Uttarakhand by National Biodiversity Authority at http://nbaindia.org/uploaded/pdf/notification/4.4%20%20Uttarakhand.pdf (shown as VoE8, VoE= verge of extinction), Uttarakhand Biodiversity Board at https://sbb.uk.gov.in/files/act/4.4__Uttarakhand.pdf (shown as HT9, HT= high threat), ebook by Uttarakhand State Biodiversity Board at https://sbb.uk.gov.in/pages/display/88-books (edited by Shah; shown as HT10), and ENVIS Centre, Botanical Survey of India at http://www.bsienvis.nic.in/Database/E_3942.aspx (shown by superscript ‘11’ with threat status in column-2, e.g., R11) are also included in Table 1.  All the sources have not followed IUCN criteria so the statuses mentioned are not comparable.  Species endemic to Uttarakhand are also marked by ‘*’. Species names are given in bold case and synonyms are in italicized normal case.  If names used in original sources have changed these are given as synonyms.  Names of all species are mainly checked in Plants of the World Online POWO (2019), Singh et al. (2019) and Catalogue of Life 2020 (Roskov et al. 2020) for nomenclatural updates.  Synonyms, basionym wherever required (considering use in regional or national flora) are also given.  After the scientific name, habit of the plant is given in column-1.  In the second column threat status as given in original documents is mentioned.  In the third column distribution of species in India/ Himalayas and global distribution based on different sources is given.  In the fourth column, elevational distribution of species compiled from various authentic sources is given.  Wherever information is not available it is indicated by ‘?’.

All the threatened species listed in Table 1 are arranged order and family wise following arrangement and circumscription of families given in Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification (APG IV 2016).  Abbreviations used in Table 1 for different geographical areas (Indian states, Himalayan areas, Countries) are detailed out below Table 1.  Some of the species listed in original documents are dropped from Table-1 on account of various reasons elaborated in results and discussion part (Table 2). 

 

 

Results and Discussion

 

The compiled list of threatened species shows the presence of 290 threatened species (211 herbs, 43 shrubs, 24 trees, 12 climbers) belonging to 29 orders, 63 families and 176 genera.  This number of species is about 6% of the total wild flora of the state.  Some of the species listed as threatend in different sources are not included in it on account of clearly being synonyms of other common species, wrong identification, variety being not recognized in recent works or international databases, invasive species, or being cultivated species (Table 3).  More than 100 species are endemic to the state.  Source wise number of species included in Table 1 is depicted in table-2 which shows that maximum numbers of species are based on Pusalkar & Srivastava (2018) which is a recent document on flora of Uttarakhand.

Family wise, Orchidaceae (27+ genera and 47+ spp.) contains the largest number of threatened species followed by Fabaceae (15 genera, 26 spp.), Poaceae (14 genera, 19 spp.), Apiaceae (12 genera, 16 spp.), Rosaceae (8 genera, 16 spp.), Asteraceae (8 genera, 14 spp.), Balsaminaceae (1 genus, 10 spp.), and Ranunculaceae (7 genera, 10 spp.).  Rest of the families contain less than 10 threatened species.  The genus Impatiens L. has 10 threatened species and Berberis L. has eight species threatened out of total 30 spp. each, known in Uttarakhand while seven species of Spiraea L. out of 18 total known in Uttarakhand are threatened (Uniyal et al. 2007; Pusalkar & Srivastava 2018).

Elevational distribution of 280 species compiled from different sources shows that the maximum number of threatened species (146 spp., 52.14%) are distributed in the 2.0–3.0 km elevation zone, followed by the 3.0–4.0 km zone (126 spp., 45.0%), 1.0–2.0 km zone (99 spp., 35.35%), 4.0–5.0 km zone (66 spp., 23.57%) and up to 1.0km (58 spp., 20.71%).  The  lowest number of threatened species (11 spp., 3.92%) is found in the 5.0–6.0 km zone which is obvious being a species poor zone.  On elevation gradient, maximum forest cover (India State of Forest Report 2019) and highest species richness across all habits was recorded in the 1–2 km zone (1.4–1.6 km) by Kharkwal et al. (2005) while Oommen & Shanker (2005) found the 1.0–2.3 km zone with the highest diversity of woody elements.  Threatened species, however, are more concentrated in the 2–3 km zone and then in the 3–4 km zone, thus not directly influenced by high forest cover or species richness.  Elevational distribution of 96 endemic species also shows a similar pattern with a maximum of 43 species (44.79%) in the 2–3 km zone, followed by 36 species (37.5%) in the 3–4 km zone, 28 species (29.16%) in the 1–2 km zone, 16 species (16.6%) in the 0.2–1 km zone, and 14 species (14.58%) in the 4–5 km zone.  Species richness is expected to reduce with increasing elevation but in the Himalayas it is noticed highest in mid hills (1,500–2,500 m) above which it starts decreasing making a hump-shaped pattern (Grytnes & Vetaas 2002; Kharkwal et al. 2005).  The species richness of threatened species as well as endemic species more or less also follows this pattern with moderate richness at lower elevations which increases to highest value in mid elevation (2–3 km elevation zone) and then starts reducing.  It is apparent that species with limited elevation range (<500 m) require special attention as these are either narrow range endemics (e.g., Eremogone curvifolia (Majumdar) Pusalkar & D.K. Singh) or rarely collected (e.g., Rubus almorensis Dunn).

Today, threat statuses accepted by IUCN only are considered correct and valid in international literature.  As of the recent IUCN Red List 2020–21, only 54 species known in Uttarakhand have been evaluated, within which only 14 species are threatened.  Critically Endangered (CR) species are Aucklandia costus Falc. (=Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch.), Gentiana kurroo Royle, Lilium polyphyllum D. Don and Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. Endangered species (EN) are Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle, Angelica glauca Edgew., Cypripedium elegans Rchb.f., C. himalaicum Rolfe, and Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle. Vulnerable species (VU) are Aconitum violaceum Jacquem. ex Stapf, Cypripedium cordigerum D. Don, Dalbergia latifolia, Dienia muscifera Lindl. (=Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Kuntze), and Ulmus wallichiana Planch.  Thirty-one species are evaluated but not found threatened and accordingly categorized as Least Concern (LC, 30 spp.) or Near Threatened (NT, 01 sp.).  Nine species could not be evaluated for lack of sufficient data and categorized as Data Deficient (DD).  A clear disparity can be seen in two important sources (IUCN Red List 2020-21 and Indian Red Data Book) where only six species (Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC, Aucklandia costus Falc., Cypripedium cordigerum D. Don, C. elegans Rchb.f., C. himalaicum Rolfe, Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle) are common.  Eight additional species listed as threatened in IUCN Red List 2020-1 and 49 additional species listed as threatened in Indian Red Data Book are not included vice versa.  IUCN Red List has also not assessed 256 species listed as threatened in various sources which warrant their immediate assessment by recent IUCN guidelines to understand their correct status in nature.

One of the important tools for conservation of plant species is micropropagation (Fay 1992).  Reasons for selection of species for micropropagation may be various but one of them is the threatened status of a species.  It is found in this study that out of 14 threatened species listed in IUCN Red List and known in Uttarakhand, successful tissue culture protocols have been developed for nine only.  As per the list of threatened species by Indian Red Data Book, however, 55 species are known in Uttarakhand and only 10 species have been micropropagated.  In all, tissue culture protocols are available for only 16 species (Grewal & Atal 1976; Lal et al. 1988; Mathur 1992; Sharma et al. 1993; Sharma & Seth 2001; Pandey et al. 2004, 2005; Jabeen et al. 2006; Pandey et al. 2011; Radha et al. 2011; Bhandari et al. 2013; Mishra- Rawat et al. 2013; Sharma et al. 2014; Kumari et al. 2015; Gondval et al. 2016; Gupta et al. 2016; Panwar et al. 2015, 2016, 2017; Thakur et al. 2016).  This selection of species seems more skewed towards economically important species (12 species, mainly medicinal) than on only threatened species which suggests that only threatened status is considered a meagre reason for micropropagation.

It has been emphasized that for conservation of biodiversity we have to focus on biodiversity hotspots and documentation of distribution of biodiversity has to be improved (Myers et al. 2000; Raven & Wackernagel 2020).  Uttarakhand is one of the important zones of the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot with more than 45% flowering plant species, 60% genera, 92% families, thus, sustaining rich flowering plant diversity interspersed with a large number of threatened species (Rana & Rawat 2017; Pusalkar & Srivastava 2018).  Threat statuses of threatened plant species in entire India, including Uttarakhand, are ambiguous and require their correct assessment using categories and criteria suggested in recent IUCN Redlist to be globally acceptable (Barik et al. 2018).  The information in this communication is an attempt to provide the current situation of threatened flora of Uttarakhand as identified by various official sources.  Images of 24 threatened species and locations of individuals photographed are shown in Figure 1 to further facilitate conservation studies on these species.  It is now crucial to assess these proposed threatened species (barring 34 alredy assessed) with modern IUCN threat categories to find the most threatened species for prioritized conservation by all available means.  Such an assessment will restrict the unnecessary inflation of threatened plants list consequently reducing pressure on the resources being spent for conservation.  The given list of species will also be helpful to  subsequent scientific publications for correctly referring to any species threatened in Uttarakhand, however, it should be used judiciously as all species listed in it are not threatened strictly according to the IUCN Red List criteria.

 

 

Table 1. Threatened flora of Uttarakhand.

ORDER, FAMILY

Species Name; Habit

Threat Assessment

Geographical Distribution

INDIA; Outside India

Elev. Distr.

(m) in UK

Order 1- AUSTROBAILEYALES Takht. ex Reveal

Family 1- SCHIZANDRACEAE Blume

 Schisandra grandiflora (Wall.) Hook.f. & Thomson [=Kadsura grandiflora Wall.]; Cl

I2, NE3, I7, I11

HP, UK, S; Nep, Bhu, Chi

1500-3500

 Schisandra propinqua (Wall.) Baill. [=Kadsura propinqua Wall.]; Cl

I2, NE3, I7, I11

UK, S; Nep, Bhu, Chi

1200-3000

Order 2- MAGNOLIALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Family 2- Magnoliaceae Juss.

 Magnolia doltsopa (Buch.-Ham. ex DC.) Filger [=Michelia doltsopa Buch.-Ham. ex DC.]; T

DD3

UK, WB, S, AP, MN, MG;

Ba, Mya, Chi

900-2200

 Magnolia kisopa (Buch.-Ham. ex DC.) Filger [=Michelia kisopa Buch.-Ham. ex DC.]; T

DD3

UK, S; Nep; Tib

1500-2300

Order 3- LAURALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 3- LAURACEAE Juss.

 Alseodaphne himalayana Kosterm.; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK; Nep

?

 Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Meisn. [=Laurus glandulifera Wall.]; T

I2, LC3

UK; Nep, Ban, Bhu, Mal, Chi

1200-2150

 Cinnamomum tamala T. Nees & Eberm.; T

LC3, VU4

Himal, A; Mya, Lao, Viet

450-2150

Order 4- DIOSCOREALES R. Br. ex Mart.

Family 4- DIOSCOREACEAE R. Br.

Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines [=Dioscorea nummularia var. belophylla Prain]; Cl

I2, NE3

Himal, NE India, Pen India

300-1800

Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb.;  Cl (Image-1)

V1, NE3, EN4, 2A5, EN6

Himal, NE India

900-3500

 

Order 5- LILIALES Perleb

Family 5- MELANTHIACEAE Batsch ex Borkh.

 Paris polyphylla Sm. [=Daiswa polyphylla (Sm.) Raf.]; H

NE3, EN4, EN6, HT9

HP, UK, WB, S, AP, A, NL, MN, MG; Pak, Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi, Jap

2000-3000

 Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don [=Trillidium govanianum (Wall. ex D.Don) Kunth]; H

NE3, EN6, HT9

J&K, HP, UK, S, WB; Paki, Nep

2500-4000

Family 6- COLCHICACEAE DC.

 Gloriosa superba L.; H

LC3, VU4

India; Nep, Ban, Bhu, Chi, Mya, Lao, Mal, Africa

300-1500

Family 7- SMILACEAE Vent.

 Smilax wightii A.DC.; Cl

R1, R2, NE3

UK, E & C Himal, TN

Upto 500

Family 8- LILIACEAE Juss.

 Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don [=F. roylei Hook.]; H (Image-2)

NE3, EN4, EN6

J&K, HP, UK, S, WB; Afg, Pak, Nep, Bhu, Chi, Mya

2400-4500

 

Lilium polyphyllum D.Don; H

CR3A, CR3, CR4, CR6, HT9

J&K, HP, UK; Afg, Pak, Nep

2000-4000

Lilium wallichianum Schult. & Schult.f.; H

I2, NE3, EN6, I7, HT9, I11

UK, S; Nep, Bhu, Mya

1200-2400

Order 6- ASPARAGALES Link

Family 9- ORCHIDACEAE Juss.

 Aphyllorchis gollanii Duthie; H

E1/PEx1, Ex2/E2, NE3, 2A5, VU6 , Ex7, Ex11

UK; China

2400-3000

 Bulbophyllum reptans (Lindl.) Lindl. ex Wall. [=Bulbophyllum raui Arora; Tribrachia reptans Lindl.]; H

I2, NE3, 2A5, I11

UK, S, AP, NG, MN, MG, MZ, WB; Nep, Ban, Mya, Chi, Thai, Lao, Viet

500-1500

 Calanthe alismifolia Lindl.; H

I2, NE3, 2A5, I7, I11

UK, S, AP, MG, NG, WB; Bhu, Chi, Mya, Jap, Lao, Tai, Viet

1500-2000

 Calanthe alpina Hook.f. ex Lindl.; H

R1, R2, NE3, 2A5, R7,R11

UK, S, AP, NG, WB; Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi, Tai, Jap

2500-3500

 Calanthe davidii Franch. [=Calanthe pachystalix Reichb.f. ex Hook.f.]; H

E1, NE3, 2A5

UK, AP; Nep, Chi, Tai, Viet, Jap

1500-2000

 Calanthe mannii Hook.f.; H

R1, NE3, 2A5,R11

UK, S, AP, MZ, MN, MG; Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi, Viet, Jap

1300-2200

 Coelogyne cristata Lindl.; H

R2, NE3, 2A5

HP, UK, S, AP, A, MN, MG,WB; Nep, Bhu, Ban, Chi

1000-2000

 Coelogyne flaccida Lindl.; H

I2, NE3, 2A5

UK, S, AP,A, MN, MG, NG; Nep, Bhu, Ban, Mya, Lao, Thai

1000-2100

 Coelogyne nitida (Wall. ex D.Don) Lindl. [=Cymbidium nitidum Wall. ex D.Don]; H

R2, NE3, 2A5

UK, S, AP,MN, MZ, MG,NG, WB; Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi, Lao, Thai, Viet

1500-2300

 Crepidium acuminatum (D.Don) Szlach. [=Malaxis acuminata D.Don]; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

HP, UK, S, AP, A, MP, MG, MZ, WB, KN, KR, TN; Nep, Bhu, Thai, Viet, Lao, Ban, Chi, Mya, Phi, Australia

600-3000

 Cymbidium eburneum Lindl.; H

 

V1, NE3, 2A5

UK, S, AP, A, MN, MG, MN,WB ; Nep, Mya, Chi, Viet

1000-1500

 Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. [=Cymbidium mackinnonii Duthie; Maxillaria goeringii Rchb.f.]; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

UK, S, AP; Bhu, Chi, Kor, Jap

1700-1800

 Cymbidium hookerianum Rchb.f.; H

V1, NE3, 2A5

UK, S, AP,MG, MN, MZ; Bhu, Nep, Mya, Chi, Viet

1500-2500

 Cypripedium cordigerum D.Don; H

R1, VU3A, VU3, 2A5, EN6, HT9,R11

J&K, HP, UK, S; Pak, Nep, Bhu, Chi

2100-4000

 Cypripedium elegans Rchb.f.; H

R1, EN3A, EN3, 2A5, EN6, HT9

UK, S; Nep, Bhu, Chi

2500-4000

 Cypripedium himalaicum Rolfe; H      (Image-3)

R1, EN3, 2A5, EN6, HT9, R11

J&K, HP, UK, S; Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi

2700-4300

 

 Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo [=Orchis hatagirea D.Don]; H

NE3, CR4, 2A5, EN6, HT9

J&K, HP, UK, S; Pak, Nep, Bhu, Chi, Mon

2500-4400

 Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl. [=Dendrobium gamblei King & Pantl.]; H

I2, LC3, 2A5, I11

Throughout India; Nep, Ban, Mya, Borneo, Jawa, Malaya, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thai, Viet

300-800

*Dendrobium normale Falc.; H

I2, NE3, 2A5, I7, I11

UK

900-2700

 Dienia muscifera Lindl. [=Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Kuntze, Microstylis muscifera (Lindl) Ridl.]; H

VU3, 2A5, EN4, EN6, HT9

J&K, HP, UK, S, AP, WB; Paki, Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi

1800-4000

 Diplomeris hirsuta (Lindl.) Lindl. [=Diplochilos hirsutus Lindl.]; H

V1, NE3, 2A5, EN6, VoE8, HT9, HT10,V11

UK, S, AP, MG, NG, WB; Nep, Chi

800-1200

*Eria occidentalis Seidenf. [=Pinalia occidentalis (Seidenf.) Schuit., Y.P. Ng & H.A. Pedersen]; H

R1, R2, NE3, 2A5, VU6, R7, R11

UK

1200-1500

 Eulophia mackinnonii Duthie; H

R1, R2, NE3, 2A5, R7, R11

UK, UP, JR, CG, MP; Nep, Ban

300-800

 Eulophia obtusa (Lindl.) Hook.f. [=Cyrtopera obtusa Lindl.]; H

I2, NE3, 2A5, VU6, I7, I11

UK, UP; Nep

250-900

 Flickingeria hesperis Seidenf. [=Dendrobium hesperis (Seidenf.) Schuit. & Peter B.Adams]; H

E1, E2, NE3, 2A5, VU6 ,E7, HT9, E11

UK, MN

1500-2000

 Galeola falconeri Hook.f. [=Cyrtosia falconeri (Hook.f.)Aver.]; H

I2, NE3, 2A5, I7, I11

UK, S, AP,MN, MG, MZ, WB; Nep, Bhu, Thai, Viet, Chi

1200-2000

 Galeola lindleyana (Hook.f. & Thomson) Rchb.f. [=Cyrtosia lindleyana Hook.f. & Thomson]; H

I2, NE3, 2A5

HP, UK, AP, MN, MG, MZ, NG, WB; Nep, Chi, Viet, Sumatra

1200-2400

*Gastrochilus garhwalensis Z.H.Tsi; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

UK

1000

 Habenaria edgeworthii Hook.f. ex Collett [=Herminium edgeworthii (Hook.f. ex Collett) X.H. Jin, Schuit., Raskoti & Lu Q. Huang]; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

J&K, HP, UK, S, AP, WB; Paki, Nep, Bhu, Chi

1500-3000

 Habenaria intermedia D.Don; H

NE3, EN4, 2A5, VU6

J&K, HP, UK, CG; Nep Paki, Chi

1500-3000

*Herminium kumaunense Deva & H.B.Naithani; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

UK

3300-3600

 Neottia acuminata Schltr. [=Aphyllorchis parviflora King & Pantl.]; H

R1, LC3, 2A5, R11

UK, S, AP; Nep, Chi, Rus,  Mon, Kor, Jap, Tai

3300-3600

*Neottia mackinnonii Deva & H.B.Naithani; H

NE3, 2A5, DD6, VU6

UK

1500-1800

*Neottia microglottis (Duthie) Schltr. [=Archineottia microglottis (Duthie) S.C.Chen; Listera microglottis Duthie]; H

R1, R2, NE3, 2A5, VU6, R7, R11

UK

1500-4000

*Neottia nandadeviensis (Hajra) Szlach. [=Listera nandadeviensis Hajra]; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

UK

2400-3500

*Nervilia gleadowii A.N.Rao; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

UK

1000

 Nervilia mackinnonii (Duthie) Schltr. [=Pogonia mackinnonii Duthie]; H

I2, NE3, 2A5, VU6, I7, I11

UK; Nep, Mya, Chi

1500-1800

 

*Nervilia pangteyana Jalal, Kumar & G.S.Rawat; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

UK

800-1000

 Nervilia plicata (Andrews) Schltr. [=Nervilia biflora (Wight) Schltr.; Arethusa plicata Andrews]; H

I2, NE3, 2A5, I11

Throughout India; Pak, Nep, Ban, Bor, Jawa, Lao, Mya, Phil, Tai, Viet, Aus

300-1500

 Oreorchis foliosa (Lindl.) Lindl. var. indica (Lindl.) N. Pearce & P.J. Cribb [=Corallorhiza indica Lindl., Oreorchis indica (Lindl.) Hook.f.]; H

I2, NE3, 2A5, I7, I11

HP, UK, S; Nep, Bhu, Chi, Jap

2000-2700

 Oreorchis micrantha Lindl.; H                (Image-4)

I2, NE3, 2A5

J&K, HP, UK, S,Ap, WB; Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi

2400-3300

 

 Pecteilis gigantea (Sm.) Raf. [=Orchis gigantea Sm.]; H                                     (Image-5)

NE3, 2A5, VoE8, HT9, HT10

Throughout India; Pak, Nep, Mya, Chi

300-2000

 

 Peristylus elisabethae (Duthie) R.K.Gupta [=Peristylus kumaonensis Renz]; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

HP, UK, S, WB; Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi

2000-2200

 

 Phaius tankervilleae (Banks) Blume [=Limodorum tankervilleae Banks]; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6, VoE8, HT9, HT10

UK, S, AP,MN, MG, MZ, WB, NG, TR, KL, OD; Nep, Bhu, Ban, Mya, Chi, Jap, Viet, Sri etc

300-500

*Ponerorchis renzii Deva & H.B.Naithani; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

UK

3200-3400

 Satyrium nepalense D.Don; H

NE3, 2A5, VU6

Himal, NE India, South India; Pak, Chi, Mya, Sri Lanka

1500-4000

 Tipularia cunninghamii (King & Prain) S.C.Chen, S.W.Gale & P.J.Cribb [=Didiciea cunninghamii King & Prain]; H

E1, E2, NE3, 2A5, E7, E11

UK, S; Tai

2000-3100

Family 10- IRIDACEAE Juss.

 Iris milesii Baker ex Foster; H

I2, NE3

W Himal; Chi

1600-2700

Family 11- AMARYLLIDACEAE J.St.-Hil.

 Allium auriculatum Kunth; H

E2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Nep

3300-5500

 Allium loratum Baker; H

E2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Afg, Chi

2600-3700

 Allium roylei Stearn; H

E2, NT3

J&K, UK; Afg, Pak

1900-3200

 Allium stracheyi Baker; H

V1, V2, NE3, VU4, VU6 , V7, V11

J&K, HP, UK; Pak, Nep

2000-3800

Family 12- ASPARAGACEAE Bercht. & J. Presl

 Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don; H (Image-6)

DD3

Himal; Ban, Mya, Chi, Tai, Viet

2100-3000

 

*Dipcadi reidii Deb & S. Dasgupta; H

PEx1, Ex2, NE3, CR6, VU6, Ex7, Ex11

UK; Nep(?)

1500-2500

 Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle [=Convallaria cirrhifolia Wall.]; H

NE3, VU4, VU6

J&K, HP, UK, S; Pak, Nep, Bhu, Chi

1200-4500

 Polygonatum graminifolium Hook.; H (Image-7)

I2,NE3, I7, I11

J&K, HP, UK; Nep, Bhu

2600-4650

 

 Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. [=Convallaria verticillata L.]; H

VU4,  VU6

Himal

1500-4500

Order 7- ARECALES Bromhead

Family 13- ARECACEAE Bercht. & J. Presl (PALMAE Juss.)

 Phoenix rupicola T. Anderson; T

R1, V2, NT3

UK, NE India

Up to 800

*Trachycarpus takil Becc.; T (Image-8)

R1, NE3, CR6, VU6, VoE8, HT9, HT10, R11

UK

1800-2550

 

Order 8- ZINGIBERALES Griseb

Family 14- ZINGIBERACEAE Martinov

 Cautleya spicata (Sm.) Baker [=Cautleya petiolata Baker]; H

I2, LC3, I7, I11

Himal; Chi, Mya

1800-2800

Hedychium spicatum Sm. ; H

NE3, VU6

Himal; Chi, Mya, Thai

1500-2800

Order 9- POALES Small

Family 15- ERIOCAULACEAE Martinov

Eriocaulon nepalense J.D. Prescott ex Bong. var. luzulifolium (Mart.) Praj. & J.Parn. [=Eriocaulon pumilio Hook.f.]; H

I2, NE3, DD6, I7, I11

W Himal, NE India; Nep, Chi, Thai, New Guinea

900-2000

Family 16- CYPERACEAE Juss.

Carex clavispica S.R. Zhang [=Kobresia duthiei C.B. Clarke]; H

I2, NE3

Himal

3600-4500

Carex esenbeckii Kunth [=Kobresia esenbeckii (Kunth) Noltie; Kobresia trinervis var. foliosa (C.B.Clarke) Kuekenth.]; H

I2, NE3

Himal; Bhu, Chi, Tib

3300-5000

*Carex nandadeviensis Ghildyal, U.C.Bhattach. & Hajra; H

NE3, VU6

UK

3000-4000

Family 17- POACEAE Barnhart (GRAMINEAE Juss.)

Cymbopogon microstachys (Hook.f.) Soenarko [=Cymbopogon flexuosus var. microstachys (Hook.f.) Bor]; H

R2, NE3, R7, R11                            

N, E & NE India, Indian plains; Chi, Indochina

300-1000

*Cymbopogon osmastonii R. Parker; H

V2, NE3,VU6

UK, N India

300-500

*Dendrocalamus somdevae H.B. Naithani; Sh

NE3, END11

UK

600-1500

Digitaria duthieana Henrard ex Bor; H

DD3

UK, UP, MP

300

Elymus duthiei (Melderis) G.Singh [= Agropyron duthiei Melderis]; H

I2, NE3, I7, I11

W&E Himal

1000-2000

*Eulalia madkotiensis Kandwal, B.K. Gupta & S.K. Srivast.; H

NE3, VU6

UK

1200-1500

*Festuca lucida Stapf; H

I2, NE3,I7, I11

UK

2300-3000

*Festuca nandadevica Hajra; H

NE3, VU6

UK

3300-3600

*Helictotrichon uniyalii Kandwal & B.K. Gupta; H

NE3, VU6

UK

2500-3000

*Microstegium falconeri (Hook.f.) Clayton [=Ischnochloa falconeri Hook.f.]; H

I2, NE3, VU6, I7, I11

NW & E Himal

1800-3000

Piptatherum hilariae Pazij [=Oryzopsis humilis Bor; Oryzopsis hilariae (Pazij) Uniyal]; H

I2, NE3, I7, I11

W Himal; Taj, Afg, Paki, Tib, Chi

2000-2500

*Poa garhwalensis D.C. Nautiyal & R.D. Gaur; H

NE3, VU6

UK

3900-4200

Poa pseudamoena Bor; H

I2, NE3,I7, I11

W Himal; Tib, China

3000-3800

*Poa rhadina Bor; H

E2, NE3, VU6, E7, E11

UK

2600-4100

*Poa royleana Nees ex Steud.; H

NE3, END11

UK

2000-3300

*Pseudodanthonia himalaica (Hook.f.) Bor & C.E.Hubb. [=Danthonia himalaica Hook.f.]; H

I2, NE3, VU6, VU6

W Himal

2000-2300

Puccinellia thomsonii (Stapf ex Hook.f.) R.R. Stewart [=Glyceria thomsonii Stapf ex Hook.f.]; H

I2, NE3

W Himal; Tib

4000-4500

*Sehima notatum (Hack.) A. Camus [=Ischaemum notatum Hack.]; H

NE3, VU6

UK

1200-2100

Trisetum micans (Hook.f.) Bor [=Avena micans Hook.f.]; H

I2, NE3, I7, I11

W Himal, Indian plains

2400-3800

Order 10- RANUNCULALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 18- PAPAVERACEAE Juss.

Corydalis cashmeriana Royle; H

E2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK, S; Pak, Nep, Chi

2800-4700

*Corydalis devendrae Pusalkar; H

NE3, VU6

UK

3800-5000

Papaver guilelmi-waldemarii (Klotzsch) Christenh. & Byng [=Meconopsis guilemi-waldemarii Klotzsch; Meconopsis aculeata Royle]; H

E2, NE3, EN4

J&K, HP, UK, S; Pak, Nep, Bhu

3500-5200

*Papaver robustum (Hook.f, & Thomson) Christenh. & Byng [=Meconopsis robusta Hook.f. & Thomson]; H  (Image-9)

NE3, VU6

UK; Nep

2500-4300

 

Family 19- BERBERIDACEAE Juss.

*Berberis affinis G. Don; Sh

R1, R2, NE3, VU6, VU6, R7, R11

UK

2200-3000

*Berberis ahrendtii R.R.Rao & Uniyal; Sh

NE3, EN6, VU6

UK

2000-3000

*Berberis garhwalensis C.K.Schneid.; Sh

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

3000-4000

*Berberis jaunsarensis (Ahrendt) Laferr. [=Mahonia jaunsarensis Ahrendt]; Sh

I2, NE3, VU6, I7 , I11

UK

1500-2600

*Berberis lambertii R. Parker; Sh

V1/E1, V2, NE3, CR6, VU6, V11/E11

UK

2650-2900

*Berberis osmastonii Dunn; Sh           (Image-10)

R1, R2, NE3, VU6, R7, R11

UK

1700-3000

 

Berberis pseudumbellata R.Parker; Sh

I2, NE3,I7, I11

J&K, HP, UK; Pak

2200-3800

*Berberis rawatii U.L.Tiwari & B.S.Adhikari; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

2200-2400

Podophyllum hexandrum Royle [=Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S.Ying]; H

NE3, EN4, 2A5, EN6

J&K, HP, UK, S, AP; Pak, Nep, Bhu, Chi

2000-4000

Family 20- RANUNCULACEAE Juss.

Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle; H

EN3A, EN3, CR4, EN6, VoE8, HT9, HT10

J&K, HP, UK; Pak, Nep

2700-4800

Aconitum laeve Royle; H

NE3, EN6

J&K, HP, UK; Pak, Nep

2000-3500

Aconitum lethale Griff. [=A. falconeri  Stapf var. latilobum Stapf; A. balfouri  var. rhombilobatum Stapf; A. falconeri  Stapf var. falconeri]; H  (Image-11)

V1, I2, NE3, VU4, EN6, I7, VoE8, HT10 , I11

UK; Nep

2800-4000

 

Aconitum violaceum Jacquem. ex Stapf; H (Image-12)

VU3A, VU3, VU4, VU6, VoE8, HT10

J&K, HP, UK; Pak, Nep

3200-4800

 

*Anemone raui Goel & U.C. Bhattach.; H

NE3, VU6

HP, UK

2500-3500

Aquilegia nivalis (Baker) Falc. ex B.D. Jacks [=Aquilegia glauca Lindl. var. nivalis; Aquilegia nivalis (Baker) Bruehl]; H

E2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Pak

3200-4500

Delphinium koelzii Munz; H

I2, NE3

HP, UK

1600-2500

*Oxygraphis kumaonensis I.D.Rai & G.S.Rawat; H

NE3, VU6

UK

4000-4100

*Ranunculus uttaranchalensis Pusalkar & D.K.Singh; H

NE3, VU6

UK

4000-4350

Trollius acaulis Lindl.; H                        (Image-13)

E2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Ira, Pak, Nep, Chi

3200-5000

 

Order 11- SAXIFRAGALES Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 21- SAXIFRAGACEAE Juss.

Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. [=Megasea ciliata Haw.]; H

NE3, VU6

J&K, HP, UK; Pak, Nep, Mya

1000-4300

Saxifraga jacquemontiana Decne.; H

E2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK, S; Nep, Bhu, Chi

3900-5800

Saxifraga meeboldii Engl. & Irmsch.;  H

NE3, DD6

J&K, HP, UK; Tib

4000-4200

*Saxifraga minutissima D.S. Rawat; H

NE3, VU6

UK

4200-4800

Family 22- CRASSULACEAE J.St.-Hil.

*Sedum bhattacharyyae R. Manik., N.B. Singh & S.K. Srivast. [=Sedum pedicellatum N.B.Singh & U.C.Bhattach.]; H

NE3, VU6

UK

1500-3500

*Sedum duthiei Frod.; H

I2, NE3,DD6, VU6, I7, I11

UK

4500-4700

Sedum heterodontum Hook.f. & Thomson [=Rhodiola heterodonta (Hook.f. & Thomson) Boriss.]; H

NE3, VU4

J&K, HP, UK; Ira, Afg, Pak, USSR, Nep, Tib, Mon

2500-5100

*Sedum seelemannii Raym.-Hamet; H

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

4500-4700

Order 12- FABALES Bromhead

Family 23- FABACEAE Lindl. (LEGUMINOSAE Juss.)

Abrus fruticulosus Wall. ex Wight & Arn.; Cl

DD3A , DD3

UK, Indian plains, NE India; Chi, Tropical Africa

?

Astragalus langtangensis Podlech; Sh

DD3A , DD3

UK, Nep

3500-4000

*Astragalus nainitalensis L.B. Chaudhary; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

1700-1900

Astragalus stewartii Baker [=Astragalus bakeri Ali]; Sh

I2, NE3

J&K, UK; Paki

1500-3200

*Astragalus uttaranchalensis L.B. Chaudhary & J.H. Khan; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

3200-3500

Butea pellita Hook.f. ex Prain [=Meizotropis pellita (Hook.f ex Prain) Sanjappa]; Sh (Image-14)

NE3, CR6, VoE8, HT9, HT10

UK; Nep

1400-1500

 

Dalbergia lanceolaria L.f.; T

NE3, 2A5

UK, Tropical Himal, India; Sri Lanka, Mya

300-1000

Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.; T

VU3, 2A5

UK, India; Nep, Mal

300-500

Dalbergia sericea G. Don; T

NE3, 2A5

UK; Nep, Ban, Chi

300-1500

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC.; T

NE3, 2A5

J&K, HP, UK; Ira, Afg, Pak, Nep, Ban, Mya

300-1200

Dalbergia volubilis Roxb.; Cl

NE3, 2A5

UK, E Himal, NE India, Indian plains; Nep, Ban, Mya, China, Thai, Viet, Lao

300-600

*Derris kanjilalii K.C. Sahni & H.B. Naithani; Cl

NE3, VU6

UK; Nep

300-400

*Desmodium garhwalensis L.R. Dangwal & R.D. Gaur; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

700-1800

Hedysarum astragaloides Benth. ex Baker; H

R1, R2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Afg, Paki

3500-4500

Hedysarum cachemirianum Benth. ex Baker; H

R1/V1, NE3

J&K, UK; Paki

3700-4000

Hedysarum microcalyx Baker; H

V1, NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Paki

2700-4400

Indigofera cedrorum Dunn; Sh

I2, NE3, VU6

HP, UK

1200-2500

Indigofera dosua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don var. simlensis (Ali) Sanjappa [=Indigofera simlensis Ali]; Sh

I2, NE3, VU6

HP, UK

600-3000

Indigofera thothathrii Sanjappa; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK, UP, A

Up to 500

Indopiptadenia oudhensis (Brandis) Brenan [=Piptadenia oudhensis Brandis]; T

NE3, EN6, VoE8, HT9, HT10

UK, UP; Nep

300-600

Macrotyloma sar-garhwalensis R.D. Gaur & L.R. Dangwal; H

NE3, VU6

UK

600- 1500

*Pueraria garhwalensis L.R. Dangwal & D.S. Rawat; Cl

NE3, VU6

UK

300-600

*Senna davidsonii (V. Singh) V. Singh [=Cassia davidsonii V. Singh]; Sh

NE3, VU6, DD6

UP (UK ?)

?

Thermopsis inflata Cambess.; H

I2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK, S; Paki, Nep, Chi

4900-5500

Uraria picta (Jacq.) Desv. ex DC. [=Hedysarum pictum Jacq.]; H            (Image-15)

LC3, HT9

Himal, India; Pak, Ban, Mya, Chi, Jawa, Male, Phil, Sri Lanka, Thai, Tr Africa

Up to 1500

 

Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal [=Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.]; H

DD3

UK, Throughout India; Pak, Ban, Mya, Chi, Sri

Up to 2000

Order 13- ROSALES Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 24- ROSACEAE Juss.

*Alchemilla palii Panigrahi & Purohit; Sh

NE3, DD11

UK

?

*Cotoneaster parkinsonii Panigrahi & Arv. Kumar; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK, E Himal, NE India; Nep, Mya

2400-2500

Cotoneaster roseus Edgew.[=Cotoneaster osmastonii G.Klotz]; Sh

NE3, VU6

W Himal; Afg, Pak

2400-3300

Cotoneaster simonsii Hort. ex Baker; Sh

I1, I2, NE3

UK, S; Bhutan

1500-3200

*Geum aequilobatum K.M.Purohit  & Panigrahi; H

NE3, END11

UK

1000-1500

Prunus jacquemontii Hook.f. Sh

DD3

J&K, UK; Afg, Pak

2800-3500

*Rosa hirsuta Ghora & Panigrahi; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

3600-3800

*Rubus almorensis Dunn; Sh                               

I2, NE3,DD6,

VU6, I7, I11

UK

2400-2700

*Sibbaldia axilliflora (Hook.f.) Chatterjee [=Potentilla axilliflora Hook.f.]; Sh

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

?

*Spiraea diversifolia Dunn;  Sh                             

I2, NE3,I7, I11

UK; Nep(?) (CoL)

2700-4400

*Spiraea duthieana Zinserl.; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

2400-3100

*Spiraea hypoleuca Dunn.; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK; Nep? (CoL)

2100-3300

*Spiraea panchananii Panigrahi & K.M.Purohit; Sh

NE3,VU6

UK

2400

*Spiraea panigrahiana K.M. Purohit.; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

1900

*Spiraea parkeri Panigrahi & K.M. Purohit; Sh

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

1900-2000

*Spiraea raizadae Panigrahi & K.M. Purohit; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

3200-3300

Family 25- RHAMNACEAE Juss.

*Sageretia devendrae Pusalkar; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

2000-2500

Family 26- ULMACEAE Mirb.

Ulmus wallichiana Planch.; T

E2, VU3,NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Afg, Paki, N

1500-3000

Order 14- FAGALES Engl.

Family 27- BETULACEAE Gray

Carpinus faginea Lindl.; T

DD3A , DD3

UK; Nep

1200-2200

Corylus jacquemontii Decne.; T

DD3A , DD3

J&K, HP, UK; Nep

2000-2700

Order 15- CUCURBITALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 28- DATISCACEAE Dumort.

Datisca cannabina L.; H

NE3, EN4

UK; Mediterranean, Afg, Pak, Nep, Viet

700-1550

Order 16- MALPIGHIALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 29- HYPERICACEAE Juss.

Hypericum perforatum L.; H

LC3, VU4

J&K, HP, UK; Europe, E Asia, N Africa, Chi

1000-3000

Family 30- VIOLACEAE Batsch

Viola kunawarensis Royle; H

I2, NE3, I7, I11

J&K, HP, UK, S; Afg, Paki, Nep, Tib

2800-5200

Viola repens Wall. ex Ging.; H

NE3, VU6

Himal; Pak, Mya, Chi, Thai, Sri Lanka

500-3200

Family 31- EUPHORBIACEAE Juss.

Euphorbia royleana Boiss.; T

NE3, 2A5

J&K, HP, UK, NE India, E Himal; Pak, Nep, Mya, Chi, Tai

600-1800

Order 17- MYRTALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 32- ONAGRACEAE Juss.

Epilobium glaciale P.H. Raven; H

I2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Pak

3600-4400

Order 18- CROSSOSOMATALES Takht. ex Reveal

Family 33- STAPHYLEACEAE Martinov

Staphylea cochinchinensis (Lour.) Byng & Christenh. [=Ticeros cochinchinensis Lour; Turpinia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.; Turpinia nepalensis Wall.]; T

NE3, VU6, VoE8, HT9, HT10

UK, E Himal; Nep, Ban, Mya, Thai, Viet, Lao

1000-2200

Order 19- SAPINDALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 34- SAPINDACEAE Juss.

Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis; T

V1, V2, NE3, VU6, V7, V11

J&K, HP, UK; Pak, Nep, Chi

2000-3350

Family 35- RUTACEAE Juss.

Zanthoxylum armatum DC.; T

LC3, VU4

J&K, HP, UK, MN, MG, NG, OD, AD; Pak, Nep, Mya, Chi, Jap, Kor, Phil, Tai, Viet

1000-2200

Order 20- BRASSICALES Bromhead

Family 36- BRASSICACEAE Burnett

*Eutrema purii (D.S. Rawat, L.R. Dangwal & R.D. Gaur) Al-Shehbaz, G.Q. Hao & J. Quan Liu [=Dilophia purii D.S. Rawat, L.R. Dangwal & R.D. Gaur]; H (Image-16)

NE3, VU6

UK

4500-5000

 

Order 21- CARYOPHYLLALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 37- POLYGONACEAE Juss.

*Koenigia binsarii (Silas & R.D.Gaur) R.D.Gaur [=Polygonum binsarii Silas & R.D.Gaur]; H

NE3, VU6

UK

2400-2700

 Rheum australe D.Don [=Rheum emodii Wall. ex Meisn.]; H

NE3, EN4, EN6

UK, E Himal; Mya

3000-4450

 Rheum moorcroftianum Royle; H

NE3, VU6

HP, UK; Nep

3500-4800

 Rheum webbianum Royle; H

NE3, VU4, VU6

J&K, HP, UK; Pak, Nep, Tib

2400-5000

*Rumex gangotrianus Aswal & S.K. Srivast.; H

NE3, VU6

UK

2600-3150

Family 38- CARYOPHYLLACEAE Juss.

 Arenaria neelgherrensis Wight & Arn.; H

I2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK, S; Paki, Nep, Maha, TN

900-3700

 Cerastium thomsonii Hook.f.; H

I2, NE3,I7, I11

J&K, HP, UK

2500-3650

*Eremogone curvifolia (Majumdar) Pusalkar & D.K. Singh [=Arenaria curvifolia Majumdar]; H  (Image-17)

E1, E2, NE3, CR6, VU6, HT9 , E11

UK

3300-3650

 

*Eremogone ferruginea (Duthie ex F.N. Williams) Pusalkar & D. K. Singh [=A. ferruginea Duthie ex F.N. Williams]; H

E1, E2, NE3, DD6, VU6, I7, I11

UK

2400-3050

 Odontostemma thangoense (W.W. Sm.) Rabeler & W.L. Wagner [=Arenaria thangoensis W.W. Sm.]; H

V1, V2, NE3

UK, S; Tib

3300-3600

 Silene kumaonensis F.N.Williams; H

R1, R2, NE3, R11

UK; Nep

2500-3000

 Silene stracheyi Edgew.

NE3, DD6

UK, S; Nep, Bhu

2250-3030

Stellaria depressa Em. Schmid; H

I2, NE3

J&K, UK; Tib

4800-5000

Order 22- ERICALES Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 39- BALSAMINACEAE A. Rich.

*Impatiens devendrae Pusalkar; H

NE3, VU6

UK

1200-3200

*Impatiens duthiei Hook.f.; H

NE3, VU6

UK

2700m

*Impatiens inayatii Hook.f.; H

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

2400-2700

*Impatiens jaeschkei Hook.f.; H

NE3, END11

UK

2700-3000

*Impatiens kaliensis Grey-Wilson; H

NE3, VU6

UK

2200-3250

*Impatiens langeana Hook.f.; H

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

?

*Impatiens podocarpa Hook.f.; H

NE3, END11

UK

2100-2400

*Impatiens polysciadia Hook.f.; H

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

?

*Impatiens reidii Hook.f.; H

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

1800-2600

*Impatiens violoides Edgew. ex Hook.f.; H

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

2400-2700

Family 40- PRIMULACEAE Batsch ex Borkh.

Embelia tsjeriam-cottam (Roem. & Schult.) A. DC. [=Ardisia tsjeriam-cottam Roem. & Schult.]; T

NE3, VU4

J&K, UK, WB; Pak, Nep, Ban, MYa, Thai, Viet, Sri Lanka

450-1800

*Primula garhwalica (Balodi & S.Singh) K.K.Khanna & An.Kumar [=Androsace garhwalicum Balodi & S.Singh]; H

NE3, VU6

UK

4100-4400

Primula drummondiana Craib; H

I2, NE3

HP, UK; Nep

2400

Primula minutissima Jacquem. ex Duby; H

E2, NE3

J&K, HP, UK; Nep

3500-5450

Family 41- SYMPLOCACEAE Desf.

Symplocos paniculata Miq.; T

NE3, VU4

Himal; Pak, Ban, Mya, Chi, Jap, Lao, Viet

1000-2900

Family 42- ERICACEAE Juss.

*Rhododendron rawatii I.D.Rai & B.S.Adhikari; T

NE3, VU6

UK

3100-3350

Order 23- GENTIANALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 43- RUBIACEAE Juss.

Clarkella nana (Edgew.) Hook.f. [=Ophiorrhiza nana Edgew.]; H

R1, R2, NE3, R7, R11

UK; Mya, Chi, Thai

1200-2400

*Leptodermis riparia R.Parker; Sh

NE3, VU6

UK

700-1600

Rubia edgeworthii Hook.f.; Cl

V1, V2, NE3, V7, V11

UK, Chi

900-1200

Family 44- GENTIANACEAE Juss.

Gentiana cachemirica Decne.; H

E2, NE3

J&K, UK; Paki

2600-3900

Gentiana crassuloides Bureau & Franch.; H

R2, NE3, R7, R11

UK, S,  AP; Nep, Bhu, Chi

3400-5000

Gentiana kurroo Royle; H

CR3A, CR3, CR4, EN6, VoE8, HT9, HT10

HP, UK; Afg, Pak, Mya

1500-3000

*Gentiana saginoides Burkill; H

R2, NE3,CR6, VU6, R7, R11

UK

3000-3600

*Gentiana tetrasepala Biswas; H

NE3, VU6, VU6

UK

3800-4500

Kuepferia infelix (C.B.Clarke) Adr. Favre [=Gentiana infelix C.B. Clarke]; H (Image-18)

R2, NE3, VU6, R7, R11

HP, UK, S; Nep, Bhu, Mya, Chi

4000-4900

 

*Swertia alpina U.C.Bhattach. & S.Agrawal; H

NE3, VU6

UK

3200-4500

Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karst. [=Gentiana chirayita Roxb.]; H

NE3, EN4, EN6

J&K, HP, UK, E Himal; Nep,

1200-3600

 Family 45- APOCYNACEAE Juss.

Ceropegia angustifolia Wight; Cl

V1, V2, NE3

UK, UP, S, A, MG, WB; Ban

1000-2400

Ceropegia bulbosa  Roxb.; Cl

V2, NE3, EN4, VU6

All over India

300-600

Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz; Sh

NE3, VU4, 2A5

All over India

300-600

Order 24- BORAGINALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 46- BORAGINACEAE Juss.

Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G.Don) I.M. Johnst. [=Echium benthamii Wall. & G.Don]; H

E2, NE3, VU6, CR4, HT9

J&K, HP, UK; Paki, Nep

3000-5000

Arnebia euchroma (Royle ex Benth.) I.M. Johnst. [=Lithospermum euchromon Royle ex Benth.]; H

NE3, EN4, VU6, HT9

J&K, HP, UK; Ira, Afg, Pak, Kaza, Nep, Tib, Chi

3500-4600

*Cynoglossum jaunsarensis (Kazmi) Pusalkar [=Ivanjohnstonia jaunsariensis Kazmi]; H

NE3, DD6, VU6

UK

2200-2400

Order 25- SOLANALES Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl

Family 47- CONVOLVULACEAE Juss.

Ipomoea laxiflora H.J. Chowdhery & M.R. Debta; Cl

NE3, VU6

UK, MH

Up to 800

Family 48- SOLANACEAE Juss.

Hyoscyamus niger L.; H

NE3, VU4

J&K, HP, UK, S, AP; Temperate Eurasia, NW Africa

2800-4200

Order 26- LAMIALES Bromhead

Family 49- OLEACEAE Hoffmanns. & Link

Fraxinus micrantha Lingelsh.; T

DD3

W Himal; Pak, Nep

1500-2400

Schrebera swietenioides Roxb.; T

NE3, EN6, VoE8, HT9, HT10

 

450-762

Family 50- GESNERIACEAE Rich. & Juss.

 Didymocarpus aromaticus Don; H

NE3, VU6

 

1800-3000

 Didymocarpus pedicellatus R.Br.; H

NE3, VU4

 

500-1700

Family 51- PLANTAGINACEAE Juss.

*Kashmiria himalaica (Hook.f.) D.Y. Hong [=Falconeria himalaica Hook.f.; Wulfenia himalaica (Hook.f.) Pennell]; H (Image-19)

NE3, VU6, VU6

UK

2400-3800

 

Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) D.Y. Hong [=Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell]; H

NE3, EN6

Himal; Chi

3000-4600

Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.; H

V1, NE3,CR4, 2A5, EN6

J&K, HP, UK; Pak

3000-4600

*Picrorhiza tungnathii Pusalkar; H

NE3, VU6

UK

3500-3800

Family 52- SCROPHULARIACEAE Juss.

*Scrophularia obtusa Edgew. ex Hook.f.; H

NE3, VU6

UK

1500-2100