Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 March 2020 | 12(4): 15443–15459

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5588.12.4.15443-15459

#5588 | Received 26 November 2019 | Final received 23 January 2020 | Finally accepted 24 February 2020

 

 

The insect fauna of Tenompok Forest Reserve in Sabah, Malaysia

 

Arthur Y.C. Chung 1, Viviannye Paul 2  & Steven Bosuang 3

 

1,2 Forest Research Centre, Sabah Forestry Department, P.O. Box 1407, 90715 Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia.

3 P.O. Box 88831, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, East Malaysia.

1 aycchung@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 viviannye.paul@sabah.gov.my, 3 chewichewlucanus@gmail.com

 

 

 

Editor: Anonymity requested.   Date of publication: 26 March 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Chung, A.Y.C., V. Paul & S. Bosuang (2020).The insect fauna of Tenompok Forest Reserve in Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(4): 15443–15459. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5588.12.4.15443-15459

 

Copyright: © Chung et al. 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Sabah Forestry Department through the Federal Ministry of Energy & Natural Resources, Malaysia (formerly Ministry of Water, Land & Natural Resources).

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Arthur Y.C. Chung and Steven Bosuang are entomologists based in Sabah.  Arthur Y.C. Chung is a senior researcher while Viviannye Paul is a researcher at the Sabah Forestry Department.

 

Author contribution: AYCC and VP participated in the survey. SB is an expert on beetles and other montane insects. He contributed significantly in identification.

 

Acknowledgements: The Chief Conservator of Forests, Datuk Mashor Mohd. Jaini and his deputies, Frederick Kugan and Dr Robert Ong are acknowledged for their support. This scientific expedition was an activity under the Heart of Borneo (HoB) Initiative with funding from the 11th Malaysia Plan through the Ministry of Water, Land & Natural Resources (formerly Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment). John Sugau, Dr Reuben Nilus and Mohd. Aminur Faiz facilitated the arrangement for the fieldtrip. Mohd. Jumri provided the maps. We thank the DFO of Ranau and his staff for logistics and field support. Dr Homathevi Rahman, Momin Binti, John L. Yukang, Saudi Bintang and N. Aqidah Ibrahim assisted in this study. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on an earlier manuscript.

 

 

Abstract: The insect fauna in Tenompok Forest Reserve, adjacent to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah was surveyed.  Nocturnal insect diversity was moderately high, compared to other forest reserves surveyed earlier.  Species richness, however, was moderate, with an average of 73 species from 84 individuals recorded from a 1m2 area of the light-trapping cloth.  At least 20 Bornean endemic insect species were recorded from this rapid biodiversity assessment, which include 19 moth species and one beetle species.  The endemics and other insects of conservation interest recorded during the survey provide salient information to enhance the conservation effort of this forest which connects Kinabalu Park and the Crocker Range Park.  Such information provides inputs towards recommendations on high conservation value (HCV) of the area that would be incorporated in the formulation of the forest management plan.  Issues affecting the insect fauna and recommendations on insect diversity enhancement and conservation are highlighted in this paper.

 

Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, diversity, Heart of Borneo, insect fauna, Tenompok Forest Reserve.

 

Malay abstract: Satu tinjauan fauna serangga telah dijalankan di Hutan Simpan Tenompok, berhampiran dengan Gunung Kinabalu di Sabah. Kepelbagaian serangga malam adalah sederhana tinggi berbanding dengan hutan-hutan simpan lain yang telah dikaji sebelum ini. Walau bagaimanapun, kekayaan spesies adalah sederhana, dengan purata 73 spesies dari 84 individu yang telah direkodkan dari 1m2 kain putih perangkap cahaya. Sekurang-kurangnya 20 spesies serangga endemik kepada Borneo telah direkodkan dari penilaian kepelbagaian pantas ini, yang merangkumi 19 spesies rama-rama dan satu spesies kumbang. Spesies endemik serta serangga berkepentingan konservasi yang lain memberikan maklumat yang boleh membantu dalam mempertingkatkan usaha konservasi hutan ini, yang menghubungkan Taman Kinabalu dan Taman Banjaran Crocker. Maklumat sebegini membekalkan input terhadap rekomendasi untuk kawasan konservasi bernilai tinggi dalam penyediaan pelan pengurusan hutan. Isu-isu berkaitan dengan fauna serangga serta rekomendasi untuk konservasi dan peningkatan kepelbagaian serangga turut diketengahkan dalam penerbitan ini.

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The Malaysian state of Sabah in Borneo is known for its remarkable biodiversity and iconic wildlife species (Oldfield 2014), including insects (Chung et al. 2015).  These are the natural treasures that need to be protected and conserved, as stipulated in the Sabah Biodiversity Strategy 2012–2022 (Anon. 2012).  This strategy is in line with the National Policy on Biological Diversity (Anon. 2016) that seeks to conserve Malaysia’s biodiversity and to ensure that its components are utilised in a sustainable manner for continued progress and socio-economic development.  In line with this strategy, the Sabah Forestry Department has been in the forefront in implementing biodiversity conservation programmes under the Heart of Borneo (HoB) Initiative. The HoB initiative is a ‘three countries – one vision’ responsibility, which is to protect and conserve the rich biodiversity within this area.  It is a voluntary transboundary cooperation aimed at conserving and managing the ecologically inter-connected highlands of Borneo and parts of the adjacent foothills and lowland rainforests, which straddle the borders of three ASEAN countries, covering an area of approximately 2,00,000km2 (Anon. 2013). 

Insect numbers are declining globally (Basset & Lamarre 2019).  Hence, much attention should be given to this group of living organisms.  Within the HoB initiative, biodiversity documentation has been extensively carried out in Sabah, encompassing insect diversity as well, e.g., Chung et al. (2013, 2016a,b), since much is still unknown about the insect fauna compared to the large and more charismatic animals (Anon. 2012).  Despite their small size in comparison with other wildlife, they are ecologically important in the functioning of the tropical ecosystems because of their high species richness and abundance (Hill & Abang 2005).

This scientific survey was carried out on 5–9 September 2016, with the base camp located at Kg. Kilimu in Ranau.  The objectives of this study were to document the insect fauna of Tenompok Forest Reserve (FR) under the HoB Initiative, and to investigate issues affecting insect diversity, as well as to provide recommendations that would contribute towards biodiversity conservation of the study area.  Research findings from this study would enhance this area as a Class I FR to promote the connectivity between Kinabalu Park (KP) and Crocker Range Park (CRP) under the Ecolinc Kinabalu project.  This project is a connectivity conservation effort initiated by Sabah Parks to improve ecological connectivity between KP and CRP.  Although KP and CRP reside on the same range, the parks are physically separated from each other; their boundaries are separated by a distance of approximately 10km at the closest point.  Forest fragmentation that occurs within these two protected areas due to uncontrolled deforestation and expansion of agriculture and human activities has been an issue.

 

 

MATERIALS & METHODS

 

Study area

Tenompok FR (Figure 1 and Image 1) is a Class I Protection FR and is situated adjacent to Mount Kinabalu (4,095m) (Image 2), the tallest mountain in Malaysia.  It is located beside the Kota Kinabalu-Ranau highway, approximately 92km east of Kota Kinabalu and 19km west of Ranau.  With an area of 1,984ha the forest reserve is under the jurisdiction of the Ranau District Forestry Officer.  It is surrounded by villages (‘kampung’ in Malay and often used as ‘Kg.’ before the name of the village), namely Kg. Bundu Tuhan in the east, Kg. Torolobou and Kg. Toboh in the south, Kg. Kiau in the north, and Kg. Tiong in the west.

The forest is mountainous, (1,040–1,650 m), with slope amplitudes in excess of 300m and normally greater than 25o.  The soil associations in this reserve are mainly Croker and Trusmadi, based on the soil classification in Sabah (Acres et al. 1975).  The reserve is a water catchment area for Kg. Bundu Tuhan and many other villages.  Several rivers flow from this reserve, namely Liodan, Kenipir, Terleboh, Luminanap, Kuriau, Kipalapok and Tomis.  The vegetation type of the reserve is largely lower montane forest.

 

Insect sampling methods

Light trap was used to sample nocturnal insects while sweep nets and forceps were used to sample diurnal insects.

 

Light trap

The trap consists of a vertical white sheet (2 X 2 m) illuminated by a 250W mercury-lithium bulb.  It was powered by a portable Yamaha generator.  The trap was set up in an open area facing the forest reserve, from 19.00 to 21.00 h.  A GPS (Model: Garmin GPSMAP 60CSx) was used to determine the coordinates of each sampling site.  Temperature and relative humidity were taken with a digital hygrometer from Extech Instruments (model no. 445702).  The details of each trapping position are given in Table 1.

To evaluate diversity of the sampling area, insect species and individuals (≥ 5mm) within the 1 X 1 m2 at the centre of the white cloth were enumerated from 20.30 to 21.00 h.  This is a rapid biodiversity assessment method because by the end of the sampling time, morphospecies and individual numbers can be obtained.  The data was used to calculate diversity indices.  This method is simple, fast and can be carried out by non-insect specialists.  To avoid compounding human error, the same staff was assigned to count the species and individual numbers throughout the sampling period.  Light trapping was conducted within the compound of the Tenompok nursery (approximately 0.5 acre) but facing different positions of the forest on different nights.  The term ‘position’ is used here rather than site because of the limited space within the nursery and the authors acknowledge that these positions may not be independent of one another.  There were no other suitable sites for setting up the light trap in other parts of the forest due to logistical difficulties and safety reasons at night.

 

Sweep net and manual collection

Sweep nets were used to collect flying insects while other insects were sampled using fine forceps.  Butterflies were put in triangle papers while other specimens were put in vials with 75% ethanol solution.  Sampling was conducted along the trails established previously and also old skid trails.  Details of the daytime sampling sites are listed in Table 2.

 

Insect specimens and identification

In this survey, focus was given to certain insect groups, i.e., butterflies, moths, and beetles.  Other insects were recorded when encountered but without any concerted effort. Only insects with conservation interest and potential indicator insect species were sampled, so as to minimize the workload at the laboratory in preparing the specimens for identification.  This is also one of the best practices adopted to minimize stress and disturbance to biodiversity, as pointed out by Costello et al. (2016) and Didham et al. (2019) on field work ethics in biological research.  Photographs were taken with DSLR Nikon D800E and Nikon Coolpix cameras to facilitate identification.  Common insects were not sampled but photographs were taken for record purposes.  Some insect photos were not taken on the white sheet (on purpose) after the enumeration was conducted.

Selected specimens were dry-mounted and sorted to family and some to the genus and species level.  The specimens sampled from this survey are deposited at the Forest Research Centre, Sepilok, Sabah.  Dry-mounted specimens were identified based on the FRC Entomology Collection and various reference materials, e.g., Otsuka (1988, 2001) and Kirton (2014) for butterflies; Holloway (1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2011), Robinson et al. (1994), and Sutton et al. (2015) for moths; Fujita (2010), Makihara (1999), and Tung (1983) for beetles; Orr (2003) and Tang et al. (2010) for dragonflies.  Some other insects were identified based on Hill & Abang (2005).

 

Diversity indices

The diversity indices, namely Shannon Wiener, Simpson, and Fisher Alpha were calculated through a diversity analysis software by Seaby & Henderson (2007), based on Magurran (2004) and Southwood & Henderson (2000).  Merits and limitations of diversity measurements are provided by Beck & Schwanghart (2010).  Knowing that biodiversity is a multifaceted phenomenon and the existence of various methods in diversity measurements, we used the same few indices that were also applied in the past insect surveys throughout Sabah, for comparison purposes.

 

Shannon Wiener Index (H’)

This index is calculated in the following way:

H’ = -∑pi ln pi

where pi is the proportion of individuals found in species i.  For a well-sampled community, we can estimate this proportion as pi = ni/N, where ni is the number of individuals in species i and N is the total number of individuals in the community.  Since by definition the pis will all be between zero and one, the natural log makes all of the terms of the summation negative, which is why we take the inverse of the sum.  Typical values are generally between 1.5 and 3.5 in most ecological studies.  The Shannon index increases as both the richness and the evenness of the community increase.

 

Simpson Index (D)

This index is based on the probability of any two individuals drawn at random from an infinitely large community belonging to the same species:

Ds = pi2

where again pi is the proportion of individuals found in species i. For a finite community, this is

D = ni(ni – 1)/N(N – 1)

D is a measure of dominance, so as D increases, diversity (in the sense of evenness) decreases.  Thus, Simpsonʼs index is usually reported as its complement 1-D (or sometimes 1/D or –lnD).  In Seaby & Henderson (2007), it is reported as 1/D, which is also known as Simpson’s reciprocal index.  It is heavily weighted towards the most abundant species in the sample while less sensitive to species richness (Magurran 1988).  Hence, the value will be low if there is a very abundant species.

 

Fisher Alpha Index (S)

This is a parametric index of diversity that assumes that the abundance of species follows the log series distribution:

αx, αx2/2, αx3/3, … αxn/n

where each term gives the number of species predicted to have 1,2,3,....n individuals in the sample.  The index is the alpha parameter.  This is a useful index, which has been widely used.  It is estimated by an iterative procedure that may take an appreciable amount of time with large data sets.

 

Insect fauna in conservation implications

Within ecological science, there has been a large focus on whether a reduction in the diversity of the entities of organisms – biodiversity – is impacting ecological process and ecological services.  Various studies have highlighted that there is indeed a positive relationship between diversity and functioning in terms of biomass production and some other functions (Balvanera et al. 2006; Cardinale et al. 2006; Isbell et al. 2011).  Biodiversity conservation should focus on ecosystem function, rather than on a particular species, that could serve as a framework for addressing the current urgent conservation challenges (Peh & Lewis 2012).  In this study, it is hoped that the documentation of insect fauna would provide an impetus for biodiversity conservation of Tenompok FR as insects are ecologically  important in the functioning of the ecosystem.

 

 

RESULTS and DISCUSSION

 

Overall insect diversity

The nocturnal insect diversity was moderately high, as shown in Table 3.  The mean Shannon Index was 4.2 while Simpson index was 206.5 and Fisher alpha index was 260.2.  Species number and abundance, however, were moderate, with an average of 77 species and 84 individuals recorded within a 1m2 light-trapping cloth.

During light-trapping, the temperature was cold, between 17°C and 18°C with relatively high humidity, between 88% and 91% (Table 1).  The distribution of insect species from the light-trapping positions is reflected in the species-rank abundance curves in Figure 2.  Position C recorded the most species (85), as indicated with the long tail graph, and the Shannon’s index of 4.37 was the highest among the three positions.  Position C also shows the steepest curve, with six specimens from one interesting moth species, Areas galactina. This was the most prominent species throughout the three nights of light-trapping.

When the nocturnal insect richness is compared with other forest reserves, Tenompok FR (in red) appeared to be moderate as it is ranked 8th of the 19 sites in Sabah (Figure 3a).  In terms of nocturnal insect diversity, it is moderately high (ranked 5th of the 19 sites) and almost comparable to many other montane forest reserves sampled previously, such as Bukit Hampuan FR and Crocker Range FR (Figure 3b).

Many Bornean endemic species were recorded from Tenompok FR during the  survey, as listed in Table 4.  The endemics included 19 moth species (Image 3) and one beetle species (Image 4).  This information provides input towards recommendations on High Conservation Values (HCV) of the area, namely HCV 1 as stipulated in HCVRN (2013). From the past insect surveys under the HoB programme in Sabah, Crocker Range FR recorded the highest number of endemics with 27 species (Chung 2016a), followed by Bukit Hampuan FR with 19 species (Chung 2013).  Hence, Tenompok FR recorded the second highest number of endemics.  All the three forest reserves are located between 1,300 to 2,000 m within the Crocker Range, which indicate that the montane forest is a haven for endemic insect species.  Merckx et al. (2015) reported that tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism.

 

Butterflies (Lepidoptera)

At least 13 butterfly species were recorded, as listed in Appendix 1.  Most of the butterflies were recorded at Sg. Liden in Kg. Bundu Tuhan, at the fringe of the forest reserve. Among the interesting butterflies sighted were the Rajah Brooke’s Birdwing Trogonoptera brookiana which is the national butterfly of Malaysia and the Golden Birdwing Troides amphrysus, a flagship species of Sabah (Otsuka 2001).

 

Moths (Lepidoptera)

Some 102 moth species were recorded during this study (Appendix 2).  A total of 19 endemic species were documented (Image 3), which represents 19% of the moths recorded during the survey.  In terms of percentage, more endemic moths were recorded in Crocker Range FR (Chung 2016a) and Bukit Hampuan FR (Chung 2013), with 33% and 23% respectively.  In this paper, all Arctiidae and Lymantriidae moths are classified under Erebidae based on DNA analyses by Zahiri et al. (2010 & 2011) and taxonomic changes highlighted by Holloway (2011).

 

Beetles (Coleoptera)

At least nine species of macro beetles were documented (Appendix 3).  One Bornean endemic species was recorded, namely Odontolabis leuthneri (Image 4) of the telodonte form (Fujita 2010).  This stag beetle was sighted during day time at 1,600m.  A large long-horned beetle, Batocera tigris, (about 65mm) was attracted to the light trap at the Tenompok nursery.  It is a rare beetle in Borneo although it is known to be distributed in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Sumatra, Java and Borneo.  Quite a number of the soldier beetles, Mimopolemius sp. of the family Cantharidae were sighted while trekking along the trail at Kg. Bundu Tuhan.

 

Other insects

At least 17 other insect species were recorded which include termites, bugs, fig wasps, honeybees, ants, night wasps, praying mantis, dragonflies, damselflies and crickets. They are listed in Appendix 4.

 

Further pertinent observations on selected insects during the survey

 

Tiger Moth Areas galactina (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)

This was the commonest moth species encountered during the three nights of light-trapping at the Tenompok FR nursery.  It is a spectacular species because of its vibrant colours and interesting pattern (Image 5a & b).  According to Holloway (1988), this insect cannot be confused with any other; the reticulate black markings of the forewings and the black spots on patagia and tegulae distinguish it from Spilosoma of the ericsoni group.  The length of the forewings is 32–35 mm for male and 40–42 mm for female.  It is distributed from northern India and southern China to Sundaland and the Philippines.  Although widely distributed, it is not commonly encountered, normally found between 1,200m and 2,000m.  In this survey, it was recorded from 1,300m.  Although it is predominantly a montane species, it has been recorded in the lowland forest, such as Danum Valley (AYC Chung, unpublished data).  There has been no information documented on the host plants.

 

Tiger Moth Amerila spp. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)

Two species of Amerila were recorded during the survey, namely Amerila astreus (Image 6a) and Amerila omissa (Image 6b–d).  Like that of Areas galactina, both species are spectacular, with strikingly pink legs.  Both were attracted to the light trap at the Tenompok FR nursery.  They are similar externally in appearance except for the dorsal part of the abdomen.  In A. astreus, it is entirely pink but only apically so in A. omissa.  One of the interesting defense mechanisms that was observed during the survey was the secretion of acrid smelling yellow froth from the cervical glands at the anterior of the thorax when the moth was disturbed.

 

Carton ball-like termite nests (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae)

While trekking along the trail (Sampling Site 3) from Kg Bundu Tuhan, at least 10 ball-like termite nests were sighted from 1,300 to 1,461 m.  They were found on tree trunks (Image 7a) or hanging on tree branches (Image 7b), some of which were about the size of a football.  The nests were constructed from soil and litter, mixed with termite saliva.  This is interesting because it was rarely observed in previous surveys in other forest reserves, e.g., Chung et al. (2013, 2016a,b).  The termites belong to the Nasutiterminae group because of their pointed-nose soldiers.  They were observed carrying their food back to the nest openly in an organized manner (Image 7c).

 

Issues indirectly affecting insect diversity

Among many of the forest reserves in Sabah, Tenompok FR is considered one of those that is well-protected, with active participation from the local communities.  The reserve is a source of water supply for many of the adjacent villages.  Hence, the local communities have formed a committee to monitor and take care of the resources in the reserve.  Sign boards were put up to warn trespassers into the reserve (Image 8).  During the survey, a few villagers joined the researchers, indicating that they were keen to know more about the resources in the reserve.

Tenompok FR is located between Kinabalu Park and the Crocker Range Park.  Hence, the reserve is important as a corridor connecting the two park areas, especially for wildlife movement.  It is a stepping stone approach for movement of birds and insects, and the adverse impacts on inbreeding and decline in genetic diversity can be reduced.  Staff from Sabah Parks and the Ecolinc project also participated in this survey to enhance their info on this area.  The Ecolinc project was initiated some eight years ago under the EU-REDD+ programme to promote and enhance awareness to the local communities on forest connectivity and related activities on climate change and sustainable forest management. ECOLINC is the acronym for ECOlogical Linkage (conserving Sabah’s heritage, empowering INdigenous Communities).

Although the forest is considered well-protected, the survey team also spotted a few animal traps in the forest.  Among them was a pangolin trap at the base of a big tree (Image 9a).  A few tree trunks were partly burnt previously, presumably to harvest honey from the stingless bees (Image 9b).

It is important for the local communities to work hand-in-hand with the relevant departments and agencies to tackle various issues pertaining to forest biodiversity which could indirectly affect insect population (Nilus et al. 2013).  As shown in this brief study, relatively high diversity of insects and many endemic species were recorded.  Hence, it is important to continue to protect the forest for its interesting biodiversity, in line with the goals of the Sabah Biodiversity Strategy (Anon. 2012), guided by the National Policy on Biodiversity.

 

Impediments in insect fauna study

Impediments to identification are one of the major reasons why insect data are not the prime focus in conservation, as the group is perceived too big and unwieldy to use. Misidentification potentially lead to overestimating or underestimating species richness, and these problems can extremely compromise research involving diversity.  Poor taxonomy can jeopardize the understanding of ecological patterns since they are based on richness and measurement of species turnover between sites, respectively.

For biodiversity conservation, taxonomy is important, primarily because in order to protect a taxon it is essential know it first, and secondly, because no conservation action can protect undescribed species.  In this study, the enumeration on nocturnal insect diversity was based on morphospecies.  Photographs of insects were taken and identification was based on various publications and the scientific reference collection at the Forest Research Centre, Sepilok.  Various experts on certain insect groups also provided input in the identification of insects in this study.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

From this study, the nocturnal insect diversity in Tenompok FR was moderately high when compared to other forest reserves surveyed earlier.  Many endemic species were recorded in this montane forest.

The pioneer data from this rapid biodiversity assessment will serve as baseline information for other research work in future.  Local university students could use these data for comparative study for long-term monitoring on the insect diversity status of Tenompok FR.  The endemics and insect species with conservation interest recorded during the survey provide salient information to enhance the conservation of this forest as a Class I FR.  Such information can also be used in promoting nature tourism in Tenompok which is located adjacent to the touristic Kinabalu Park and Crocker Range Park.

Issues, such as poaching and encroachment may indirectly affect the insect fauna. Relevant agencies would have to work hand-in-hand to tackle the issues with the local communities.  Public awareness and environmental education would have to be enhanced among the villagers and their children who are living adjacent to the reserve to instill on them the importance of biodiversity conservation.

 

Table 1. Light-trapping positions at the nursery of Tenompok FR.

 

Sampling position

Coordinates

Elevation (m)

Temp. (°C)

Humidity

(%)

Sampling date

Remarks

A

 

6.02050N

116.4990E

1326

17.9

88

6 Sep

Cloudy

B

6.0200N

116.4990E

1329

18.0

90

7 Sep

Cloudy

C

6.0200N

116.4990E

1334

17.9

91

8 Sep

Cloudy and misty

 

 

Table 2. Daytime sampling sites in Tenompok FR from 5 to 9 September 2016.

Sampling site

Starting point coordinates

Elevation (m)

1 -- (Along the forest trail at Tenompok nursery)

6.0200N

116.4990E

1327–1404

2 -- (Along the view point trail at Tenompok nursery)

6.0200N

116.4990E

1327–1397

3 -- (Along the trail at Kg Bundu Tuhan)

5.9620N

116.5370E

1224–1461

 

 

Table 3. Insect diversity within a 1 x 1 m2 of the light-trapping cloth, as sampled in Tenompok FR.

 

 

Sampling position

Species

Ind.

Shannon

Simpson

Fisher Alpha

1

A

77

93

4.26

178.3

210.1

2

B

56

64

3.98

224

214.3

3

C

85

96

4.37

217.1

356.2

 

Mean

73±15

84±18

4.2±0.2

206.5±24.6

260.2±83.2

 

 

Table 4. Bornean endemic insect species from Tenompok FR during the survey.  The photographs of moth and beetle species are shown in Figures 6 and 7, respectively.

 

Species

Author

Order

Family

 

 

 

 

 

1

Odontolabis leuthneri

Boileau

Coleoptera

Lucanidae

2

Amata prepuncta

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

3

Auriculoceryx pterodactyliformis

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

4

Metaemene albigrisea

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

5

Cyana cruentata

Talbot

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

6

Cyana saulia

Swinhoe

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

7

Garudina macrolatana

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

8

Lyclene mesilaulinea

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

9

Monosyntaxis trimaculata

Hampson

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

10

Spilosoma groganae

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

11

Asota kinabaluensis

Rothschild

Lepidoptera

Erebidae

12

Ozola submontana

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Geometridae

13

Plutodes evaginata

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Geometridae

14

Problepsis borneamagna

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Geometridae

15

Spaniocentra apatelloides

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Geometridae

16

Buzara saikehi

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Noctuidae

17

Mudaria magniplaga

Walker

Lepidoptera

Noctuidae

18

Manoba coadei

Holloway

Lepidoptera

Nolidae

19

Tyana marina

Warren

Lepidoptera

Nolidae

20

Panacra psaltria

Jordan

Lepidoptera

Sphingidae

 

 

For figures & images - - click here

 

 

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Appendix 1. Butterflies recorded from Tenompok FR, Sabah (5–9 September 2016).

 

 

Species

Author

Family

Photo no. (TEN) *

 

 

 

 

 

1

Graphium sarpedon sarpedon

Linnaeus

Papilionidae

0432

2

Trogonoptera brookiana brookiana

Wallace

Papilionidae

Spotted

3

Troides amphrysus flavicollis

Druce

Papilionidae

Spotted

4

Troides sp.

 

Papilionidae

Spotted

5

Eurema blanda blanda

Boisduval

Pieridae

0182

6

Cethosia hypsea hypsea

Doubleday

Nymphalidae

0018

7

Euploea mulciber portia

Fruhstorfer

Nymphalidae

0180

8

Junonia orithya metion

Fruhstorfer

Nymphalidae

0437

9

Mycalesis sp.

 

Nymphalidae

0362

10

Neptis duryodana duryodana

Moore

Nymphalidae

0184

11

Ypthima pandocus sertorius

Fruhstorfer

Nymphalidae

0015

12

Sinthusa sp.

 

Lycaenidae

0158

13

Potanthus sp.

 

Hesperiidae

0409

 

 

Appendix 2. Selected moths recorded from Tenompok FR, Sabah (5–9 September 2016).

 

 

Species

Author

Family

Photo no.  (TEN) *

Remarks

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Penicillifera apicalis

Walker

Bombycidae

0453

 

2

Arthroschista hilaralis

Walker

Crambidae

0512

 

3

Dichocrocis zebralis

Moore

Crambidae

0124

 

4

Fritillerynnis clathraria

Warren

Crambidae

0255, 0107

 

5

Heortia vitessoides

Moore

Crambidae

0469, 0473

 

6

Nevrina procopia

Stoll

Crambidae

0463

 

7

Pitama hermesalis

Walker

Crambidae

0095

 

8

Rhimphalea sp.

 

Crambidae

0083

 

9

Syllepte iophanes

Meyrick

Crambidae

0112

 

10

Syllepte sp.

 

Crambidae

0133

 

11

Xanthomelaena sp.

 

Crambidae

0261

 

12

Oreta sp.

 

Drepanidae

0263

 

13

Tridrepana flava

Moore

Drepanidae

0126

 

14

Asota heliconia

Linnaeus

Erebidae

0488

 

15

Asota kinabaluensis

Rothschild

Erebidae

0259

Endemic

16

Asota nr producta

Butler

Erebidae

0511

 

17

Nyctemera muelleri

Vollenhoven

Erebidae

0456, 0458

 

18

Nyctemera sp.

 

Erebidae

0321

Day flying

19

Amata prepuncta

Holloway

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0264

Endemic

20

Amerila astreus

Drury

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0478

 

21

Amerila omissa

Rothschild

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0502, 0523

 

22

Areas galactina

Hoeven

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0052, 0065

 

23

Asura fulguritis

Hampson

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0125

 

24

Auriculoceryx pterodactyliformis

Holloway

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0243, 0256

Endemic

25

Barsine lineatus

Walker

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0108

 

26

Barsine roseororatus

Butler

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0241

 

27

Creatonotos transiens

Walker

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0091

 

28

Cyana cruentata

Talbot

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0238

Endemic

29

Cyana pudens

Walker

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0481

 

30

Cyana saulia

Swinhoe

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0111

Endemic

31

Eilema sp.

 

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0480

 

32

Eugoa trifasciata

Snellen

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0239

 

33

Garudina macrolatana

Holloway

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0454

Endemic

34

Lyclene angulifera

Holloway

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0240

 

35

Lyclene mesilaulinea

Holloway

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0092, 0265

Endemic

36

Monosyntaxis trimaculata

Hampson

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0234

Endemic

37

Padenia obliquifascia

Rothschild

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0484

 

38

Spilosoma groganae

Holloway

Erebidae (Arctiinae)

0066, 0260

Endemic

39

Metaemene albigrisea

Holloway

Erebidae (Boletobiinae)

0125

Endemic

40

Metaemene sp.

 

Erebidae (Boletobiinae)

0250

 

41

Arctornis sp.

 

Erebidae (Lymantriinae)

0075

 

42

Nygmia amplior

Collenette

Erebidae (Lymantriinae)

0110

 

43

Nygmia nr atereta

Collenette

Erebidae (Lymantriinae)

0088

 

44

Nygmia nr atrisignata

Swinhoe

Erebidae (Lymantriinae)

0268

 

45

Nygmia peperites

Collenette

Erebidae (Lymantriinae)

0081

 

46

Eupterote asclepiades

Felder

Eupterotidae

0524

 

47

Eupterote naessigi

Holloway

Eupterotidae

0134

 

48

Eupterote sp.

 

Eupterotidae

0086

 

49

Dichomeris sp.

 

Gelechiidae

0487

 

50

Chloroglyphica xeromeris

Prout

Geometridae

0262

 

51

Cleora sp. 1

 

Geometridae

0270

 

52

Cleora sp. 2

 

Geometridae

0272

 

53

Comostola pyrrhogona

Walker

Geometridae

0094

 

54

Comostola subtiliaria

Bremer

Geometridae

0069

 

55

Dooabia plana

Prout

Geometridae

0132

 

56

Eucyclodes sp.

 

Geometridae

0076

 

57

Hypephyra brunneiplaga

Swinhoe

Geometridae

0105

 

58

Hypochrosis hyadaria

Guenée

Geometridae

0093

 

59

Hyposidra apioleuca

Prout

Geometridae

0507

 

60

Omiza lycoraria

Guenée

Geometridae

0121

 

61

Ornithospila bipunctata

Prout

Geometridae

0465, 0468

 

62

Ozola liwana

Sommerer

Geometridae

0115

 

63

Ozola submontana

Holloway

Geometridae

0067

Endemic

64

Pachyodes sp.

 

Geometridae

0097

 

65

Perixera sp.

 

Geometridae

0116

 

66

Pingasa sp.

 

Geometridae

0257

 

67

Plutodes evaginata

Holloway

Geometridae

0489, 0129

Endemic

68

Problepsis borneamagna

Holloway

Geometridae

0452

Endemic

69

Protuliocnemis biplagiata

Moore

Geometridae

0074

 

70

Ruttellerona sp.

 

Geometridae

0127

 

71

Spaniocentra apatelloides

Holloway

Geometridae

0096

Endemic

72

Thinopteryx crocopterata

Kollar

Geometridae

0087

 

73

Tristeirometa sp.

 

Geometridae

0119

 

74

Trabala hantu

Roepke

Lasiocampidae

0522

 

75

Scopelodes unicolor

Westwood

Limacodidae

0106

 

76

Unidentified

 

Noctuidae

0123

 

77

Buzara saikehi

Bremer

Noctuidae

0073

Endemic

78

Catocala macula

Hampson

Noctuidae

0118, 0131

 

79

Daddala lucilla

Butler

Noctuidae

0251

 

80

Daddala sp.

 

Noctuidae

0244

 

81

Episparis costistriga

Walker

Noctuidae

0077

 

82

Hamodes propitia

Guérin-Méneville

Noctuidae

0117

 

83

Hypopyra ossigeroides

Holloway

Noctuidae

0113

 

84

Mudaria magniplaga

Walker

Noctuidae

0128

Endemic

85

Ochrotrigona praetextata

Hering

Noctuidae

0476

 

86

Psimada quadripennis

Walker

Noctuidae

0252

 

87

Rema sp.

 

Noctuidae

0269

 

88

Rusicada nigritarsis

Walker

Noctuidae

0509

 

89

Rusicada sp.

 

Noctuidae

0271

 

90

Unidentified

 

Noctuidae?

0254

 

91

Blenina sp.

 

Nolidae

0090

 

92

Clethrophora angulipennis

Prout

Nolidae

0485

 

93

Hylophilodes nr dubia

Prout

Nolidae

0483

 

94

Manoba coadei

Holloway

Nolidae

0273

Endemic

95

Tyana marina

Warren

Nolidae

0510

Endemic

96

Acosmeryx shervillii

Boisduval

Sphingidae

0089

 

97

Hippotion rosetta

Swinhoe

Sphingidae

0245

 

98

Panacra psaltria

Jordan

Sphingidae

0464

Endemic

99

Theretra boisduvali

Bugnion

Sphingidae

0508

 

100

Theretra latreillei

MacLeay

Sphingidae

0246

 

101

Dysaethria quadricaudata

Walker

Uraniidae

0482

 

102

Dysaethria sp.

 

Uraniidae

0267

 

 

 

Appendix 3. Beetles recorded from Tenompok FR, Sabah (5–9 September 2016).

 

Species

 Author

Family

Photo no.  (TEN) *

Remarks

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Mimopolemius sp. 1

 

Cantharidae

0104

 

2

Mimopolemius sp. 2

 

Cantharidae

0304

 

3

Batocera tigris

Voet

Cerambycidae

0175, 0174

Rare (1,400m)

4

Unidentified

 

Chrysomelidae

0048, 0043

 

5

Eumorphus sp.

 

Endomychidae

9977

 

6

Eulichas sp.

 

Eulichadidae

0275

 

7

Unidentified

 

Lampyridae

0049

Bioluminescent larva

8

Odontolabis leuthneri

Boileau

Lucanidae

0209

Endemic (1,600m)

9

Aceraius sp.

 

Passalidae

0072