Journal of Threatened Taxa | | 26 May 2020 | 12(8): 15922–15926



ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 


#4653 | Received 25 October 2018 | Final received 18 January 2020 | Finally accepted 01 May 2020



A first record of Camacinia harterti Karsch, 1890 (Odonata: Libellulidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India


Arajush Payra 1 , K.A. Subramanian 2, Kailash Chandra 3 & Basudev Tripathy 4


1,3,4 Zoological Survey of India, M Block, New Alipore, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700053 India

2Zoological Survey of India, Southern Regional Centre, 130, Santhome High Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600028, India (corresponding author),,,




Editor: Albert G. Orr, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia.       Date of publication: 26 May 2020 (online & print)


Citation: Payra, A., K.A. Subramanian, K. Chandra & B. Tripathy (2020). A first record of Camacinia harterti Karsch, 1890 (Odonata: Libellulidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(8): 15922–15926.


Copyright: © Payra et al. 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.


Funding: National Mission on Himalayan Studies (NMHS) Large Grant Project “Biodiversity assessment through long term monitoring plots

in the Indian Himalayan landscape” (Grant No-NMHS/LG-2016/0011/8509-8 dated 31.iii.2016) funded by Government of India.


Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.


Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to the director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata for providing necessary facilities and encouragements.  This study is a part of NMHS Large Grant Project “Biodiversity assessment through long term monitoring plots in the Indian Himalayan landscape” (Grant No- NMHS/LG-2016/0011/8509-8 dated 31.iii.2016) funded by Government of India.  The authors express their sincere gratitude to The PCCF (WL & BD) & CWLW, Government of Arunachal Pradesh for the permission (CWL/Gen/13(95)2011-2012/Pt.V/1610-1613) and necessary facilities.  The authors are thankful to Mr. Tajum Yumcha, research officer, Mr. Atum Rumdo,  and all the staff of Namdapha Tiger Reserve for their continuous support and guidance during the fieldwork.  The authors are also thankful to all the research associates and research fellows of the projects “Biodiversity assessment through long term monitoring plots in the Indian Himalayan landscape” and “Lepidoptera (Insecta) as potential indicator-taxa for tracking climate change in the Indian Himalayan landscape” for their support.



Abstract: The large forest dwelling libellulid dragonfly Camacinia harterti Karsch, 1890 is recorded from Arunachal Pradesh and India for the first time in 115 years.  The present record is based on a single male specimen collected from Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, India.  We provide detailed diagnostic characters in photographs and information on the global distribution of the species.


Keyword: Eastern Himalaya, Namdapha Tiger Reserve, new record, northeastern India, Odonata.



The genus Camacinia Kirby, 1889 (Libellulidae) includes three known species globally, viz.: Camacinia gigantea Brauer, 1867, Camacinia harterti Karsch, 1890, and Camacinia othello Tillyard, 1908 (Schorr & Paulson 2019).  Species of Camacinia are found from southeastern Asia to the Solomon Islands, northern Australia, and New Guinea.  Among the three species, C. othello occurs in New Guinea, Aru Islands, Solomon Islands, and northern Australia (Kalkman 2009).  C. gigantea is widely distributed, ranging from India to Vietnam and southwards to New Guinea (Sharma 2010) and C. harterti is recorded from southern China, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, and Thailand (Wilson & Dow 2013).  Until recently Camacinia was considered to be represented by one species In India, C. gigantea (Fraser 1936; Subramanian & Babu 2017), however, Wilson (2018), synonymized C. harmandi Martin, 1900 with C. harterti, as proposed by Ris (1913), thus adding Martin’s (1900) record from Sikkim to the historical distributional range of C. harterti.

Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of C. harterti Karsch, 1890 from Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India, based on a single male specimen.  We also provide updated global distribution of the species and detailed additional description of the specimen along with photographs.


Materials and Methods

A single male specimen was collected from Namdapha Tiger Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh.  Field photographs of the individual were taken using a Nikon P900 camera.  The geo-coordinates of the collection locality was recorded using a Garmin (E-trex 30) GPS.  The length of the different parts of the specimen was measured by using a digital vernier calliper.  Photos of anal appendages and secondary genitalia of the collected specimen were taken using a Leica S8APO with MH120 HD camera.  The specimen is deposited in the National Zoological Collection of the Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.



Camacinia harterti Karsch, 1890 (Image 1 A–F)


Material examined

ZSI 7806/H13, 1 male, Loc. Near Deban, Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Changlang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India (27.493°N & 96.376°E, 410m),, coll. Arajush Payra & Atum Rumdo.


Detailed description of male and measurements

Length (in mm): abdomen + anal appendages – 41; forewing – 49.8; hindwing – 48.5.

Head: dorsal side of eyes encircled with maroon and rest of the eyes brownish to pale blue with small black blotches.  Oceili white; vertex coppery; frons and post clypeus orange fading to yellow.  Anteclypeus yellowish to brown, with a narrow horizontal yellow line above.  Labrum orange; labium matt yellow.

Thorax: area of humeral suture broadly brownish; mesepisternum to metepimeron orange to matt yellow.

Legs: coxae and trochanter brownish-orange in all legs.  Posterior of femora in first pair coppery and remaining segments are black.

Wing: hyaline; pterostigma black, covering 2.5 cells.  Nodal index in forewing: 14–17/16–13; hindwing: 17–13/ 12–16.  One cubital nerve in forewing and two in hind wing.  The discoidal cell of fore wing three-celled and in hind wing two-celled.  Single row of cell between IR3 and Rspl.  The base of forewing was tinted with dark brown to golden yellow.  Subcostal space and cubital space with blackish-brown streaks.  The base of hindwing was dark brown to golden yellow.  Area of subcostal space, cubital space, up to discoidal cell tinted with dark brown to black.  Posterior to cubital space, discoidal cell, area of tornus and anal loop tinted with golden yellow.

Abdomen: S1 to S3 light yellow; S4 light orange above and yellowish bellow; S5 to S9 bright red; S10 brownish to black with an orange patch on dorsum.  Epiprocts dark brown, as long as S9; paraprocts orange as seen in dorsal view, more than half the length of epiprocts.  Anterior lamina of secondary genitalia black to brown; orange rounded hamule lobe with blackish apex.  Genital lobe orange with hairy apical part black.


Observation and Habitat

On 23 June 2017, during our visit to Deban (Namdapha Tiger Reserve), a single male individual was sighted along the road (Figure 1) about 70m distant from a nearby stream (Noa-Dihing River).  It was perched on the tip of a tree branch about 1.5m above the ground.  During our first attempt at capture, it flew upwards and away.  After 20–30 seconds of flight, it returned to the same perch.  The place where the individual was observed was a tropical wet evergreen forest with significant canopy cover (Champion & Seth 1968) (Image 2 A–B). 



C. harterti was described from Sumatra based on a female collected from Batu Sankahan in Deli Serdang District by Karsch (1890).  A female was observed ovipositing a phytotelm in the base of a tree root by Raymond Straatman at Balimbingan, Deli in northeastern Sumatra (Lieftinck 1954).  In Borneo, this species was recorded by Ris (1913) and Orr (2001).  Ris (1913) also reported it from Selangor in peninsular Malaysia.  In northern Thailand, C. harterti was reported by Katatani et al. (2004).  In Vietnam, several individuals were reported mainly from northern Vietnam by Do (2014); Tom (2015) and (Tom 2018) between 2014 and 2018. In China the species was reported by Wilson & Dow (2013) and recently by Zhang (2017) (See Table 1 for global distributional records of C. harterti).

In India C. harterti was first listed by Fraser (1920) from Sikkim and Bengal, but, later in “The Fauna of British India” series Fraser (1936) excluded C. harteri from Indian fauna and stated that the record of C. harterti from Sikkim was erroneous.  Therefore, C. harteri has not generally been included in Indian fauna (Mitra 2004; Subramanian & Babu 2017); however, Wilson (2018), after reviewing all the published literature pertaining to the records of C. harterti, validated the synonymy of C. harmandi with C. harterti as proposed by Ris (1913), and added both Martin’s (1900, 1904) records from Sikkim, India and Tonkin, northern Vietnam to the historical distributional range of C. harterti.  Wilson (2018) also stated that, the record of C. harterti by Fraser (1920) from Bengal may be accurate as the northern limits of Bengal are continuous with Sikkim.  But due to the lack of evidence regarding the details of involved specimens, Wilson (2018) excluded Bengal, from the historical range of C. harteri; however, the recent record of a female C. harterti from Buxa Tiger Reserve of West Bengal on 31 March 2018 by Dattaprasad Sawant (Anonymous 2019) supports Fraser’s (1920) record from Bengal (see Table 1 for global distributional records of C. harterti).

Our present record of C. harterti from Namdapha Tiger Reserve of Arunachal Pradesh, India represents its third known locality in the country.  The present record also provides new data vital to update the threat status of the species, as the species is currently treated as rare and insufficiently known (Wilson & Dow 2013; Wilson 2018).  This discovery also points to the fact that northeastern India is still underexplored with respect to Odonata fauna and extensive surveys are required to document the rich biodiversity of the region.



Table 1. Distribution records of Camacinia harterti in southern and southeastern Asian countries.



Number of Individuals collected/observed, Sex/life stage and date of collection/observation




One male

Martin (1900)

Buxa tiger Reserve, West Bengal

One female (31.iii.2018)

Anonymous (2019)

Namdapha Tiger Reseve, Arunachal Pradesh

One male (

Present study


Batu Sankahan of Deliserdang District, Sumatra

One female

Karsch (1889)

Balimbingan, Deli of northeastern Sumatra

One female

Lieftinck (1954)


Lake Merinbum, Brunei Darussalam

One female during the 1990s

Orr (2001)


Henglongbei, Nanling National Forest Park, northern Guangdong 

One male (

Wilson & Dow (2013)

Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province

One male (May 2016)

Zhang (2017)


Tonkin, northern Vietnam


Martin (1904)

Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province

One male (14.iv.2009); one male (

Do (2014); Kompier (2018)

Xuan Son National Park, Phu Tho Province

One male (31.v.2014)

Kompier (2015)

Phu Tho Province

Two adults (; one adult (27.v.2017); one adult (31.vii.2017); one male (29. v.2016); two adults (30.v.2015); one male (18.iv.2015); one male (31.v.2014)

Kompier (2018)


Quang Binh Province

One male (15.v.2017); two adults (20.v.2016); one adult (30.iv.2016)

Kompier (2018)

Yen Bai Province

One adult (

Kompier (2018)

Cao Bang Province

One male (

Kompier (2018)


Chiang Rai

One male individual in 2003 and one male in 2004

Katatani et al. (2004)


Selangor of peninsular Malaysia

One male

Ris (1913)

Mt. Marapok in Sabah, near the Sarawak border, Borneo

One male and one female

Ris (1913)


For figure & images - - click here




Anonymous (2019). Camacinia harterti Karsch, 1890. In: Joshi, S., P. Dawn, P. Roy & K. Kunte (eds.). Odonata of India, v. 1.48. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. Accessed on 20th May 2020. Camacinia-harterti

Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). Revised Forest Types of India. Manager of Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi, xxvii+404pp.

Do, M. C. (2014). Camacinia harterti Karsch, 1890. Vietnam Insect. Accessed on 30 August 2019.

Fraser, F.C. (1920). Indian dragonflies, VIII. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 27: 253–269.  

Fraser, F.C. (1936). The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Odonata Vol. 3. Taylor & Francis Ltd., London, XII+461pp.

Kalkman, V. (2009).  Camacinia othello. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T163911A5666823.

Karsch, F. (1890). BeiträgezurKenntniss der Arten und Gattungen der Libellulinen. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 33(2): 347–392.

Katatani, N., K. Kitagawa, A. Muraki & T. Matuzawa (2004). Notes on Thai Odonata, Part 3. The Odonata from Chiang Rai. Aeschna 41: 59–70.

Kompier, T. (2015). Camacinia harterti, verified. Dragonflies and damselflies of Vietnam. Accessed on 30 August 2019.

Kompier, T. (2018). Field observations reported to website by Tom Kompier made between 31 May 2014 to 10 Jun 2018 in northern Vietnam. Accessed on 30 August 2019.

Lieftinck, M.A. (1954). Hand list of Malaysian Odonata. A catalogue of the dragonflies of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, including the adjacent small islands. Treubia (Supplement) 22: 1–202.

Martin, R. (1900). Odonates nouveaux ou peu connus. Bulletin Museum Histoire Naturelle 1900(3): 103–108.

Martin, R. (1904). Liste des Neuroptères de l’Indo-Chine. In Mission Pavie Indo-Chine, 1879–1895. Paris xxi + 549 pp, 29 pls, 1 map (pp. 204–221).

Mitra, T.R. (2004). A checklist of the Odonata of Sikkim, with some new records. Opuscula Zoologica Fluminensia 206: 1–8.

Orr, A.G. (2001). An annotated checklist of the Odonata of Brunei with ecological notes and descriptions of hitherto unknown males and larvae. International Journal of Odonatology 4: 167–220.

Ris, F. (1913). Libellulinen 7. Collections Zoologiques du Baron Edmond de Selys-Longchamps. Catalogue systématique et descriptif, Bruxelles 837–964 pp.

Schorr, M. & D. Paulson (2019). World Odonata List. Online on the internet. Accessed on 30 August 2019.

Sharma, G. (2010).  Camacinia gigantea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T167427A6346507. Downloaded on 19 May 2020.

Subramanian, K.A. & R. Babu (2017). Checklist of Odonata (Insecta) of India. Version 3.0. 1-54pp.

Wilson, K.D.P (2018). New records of Camacinia harterti Karsch, 1890 and a review of old records, Agrion 22(2): 64–71.

Wilson, K.D.P. & R.A. Dow (2013).  Camacinia harterti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T193931A122448023. Downloaded on 19 May 2020.

Zhang, H. (2017). Odonata fauna of Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture of Dehong in the western part of the Yunnan Province, China–a brief personal balance from seven years of surveys and workshop report on current studies. International Dragonfly Fund–Report, 103, 1–49pp.