Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 August 2019 | 11(10): 14349–14357

 

 

Diversity of butterflies of the Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Shivamogga District, Karnataka, India

 

M.N. Harisha 1, Harish Prakash 2, B.B. Hosetti 3  & Vijaya Kumara 4

 

1–4 Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Wildlife and Management, Kuvempu University,

Jnana Sahyadri, Shankaraghatta, Shivamogga, Karnataka 577451, India

1 harishwild@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 harishprakashhp@gmail.com, 3 hosetti57@gmail.com,

4 vijay15675@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: A study was conducted on the diversity of butterflies by using the pollard walk method in the tropical dry deciduous habitats of Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Shivamogga District, Karnataka, from February 2010 to January 2011.  A total of 151 species of butterflies belonging to 99 genera and five families was recorded. The family Nymphalidae was the most dominant with the highest number of species (52 species; 35%), followed by Lycaenidae (33 species; 22%), Hesperiidae (25 species; 17%), Pieridae (24 species; 16%), and Papilionidae (15 species: 10%). The study also revealed 24 species of butterflies which are protected under various schedules of Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, and 13 species as being endemic to the Western Ghats, peninsular India and Sri Lanka.

 

Keywords: Diversity, endemicity, southern Western Ghats.

 

 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4543.11.10.14349-14357  |  ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D38555AE-3294-433F-B1AB-B0E3A293E5E9

 

Editor: George Mathew, (Ex) Emeritus Scientist, KFRI, Peechi, India.          Date of publication: 26 August 2019 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: #4543 | Received 03 September 2018 | Final received 01 August 2019 | Finally accepted 07 August 2019

 

Citation: Harisha. M.N., H. Prakash, B.B. Hosetti & V. Kumara (2019). Diversity of butterflies of the Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Shivamogga District, Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(10): 14349–14357. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4543.11.10.14349-14357

 

Copyright: © Harisha et al. 2019. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Karnataka Forest Department, Shivamogga.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: We are extremely grateful to all faculty members of the Department of Applied Zoology and Wildlife Management, for their support. We are grateful to the Shivamogga Forest Department for granting permission to conduct the study in the Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary and for their gracious hospitality during the study period.

 

 

The Western Ghats is a prominent globally recognized biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000; Gunawardene et al. 2007), which covers about 60% of the forest area of Karnataka and one among the 36 biodiversity hotspots of the World.

There are a few reports available until date on the butterflies of the Western Ghats (e.g., Gaonkar 1996; Kunte 2000, 2008; Kehimkar 2008; Padhye et al. 2012; Kasambe 2018).  Some examples of earlier documentation on butterflies from the Western Ghats protected areas include: 100 species from Silent Valley National Park (Mathew & Rahamathulla 1993), 124 species from Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary (Sudheendrakumar et al. 2000), 139 species from Kudremukh National Park (Radhakrishnan 2007), 74 species from Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary (Mathew et al. 2005), 53 species from Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary (Mathew et al. 2007), 115 species from Gudavi Bird Sanctuary (Dayanand 2014), and 85 species from the montane forests of Eravikulam National Park (Sreekumar et al. 2018); and non-protected areas: 75 species from Siruvani Reserve Forests (Arun 2003), 282 species from the Kerala part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (Mathew 2016), and 172 species from Dakshina Kannada District (Naik & Mustak 2016).  The present study was conducted to examine the status, endemicity, and abundance of butterflies from Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Shivamogga, Karnataka.

 

Material and Methods

Study area

The Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS) located between 13.88730N and 75.38790E occupies an area about 395.6km2 (Fig. 1).  It is spread over parts of three taluks of Shivamogga District: Shivamogga, Hosanagara, and Thirthahalli. The terrain in the sanctuary is plain to undulating with a few pockets consisting of very steep terrains and hillocks. The temperature within the sanctuary varies from 15˚C to 39˚C and the average rainfall varies around 2000mm dominated by the southwest monsoon during July to September. It covers dry deciduous, moist deciduous and semi evergreen forests of the Western Ghats. The sanctuary is rich in both floral and faunal diversity.

 

Sampling method

Butterfly survey was carried out from February 2010 to January 2011 to record their status and abundance. The line transect method developed by the Institution of Terrestrial Ecology (Pollard 1979) was followed to monitor the diversity. Butterflies were recorded by direct visual observation along the three fixed transect routs, each of 2km long and 10m wide, passing through the different landscape elements like dry deciduous, semi evergreen and scrub forest and walked at a constant pace for approximately one to one and half an hour. The data collection carried out in a bi-weekly random survey in the whole study period. Observations were made between 07.30hr to 11.00hr, when butterflies are most active. Butterflies were identified by using various field guides (Kunte 2000; Sharma & Radhakrishna 2005; Kasambe 2018) and the nomenclature followed is as per Kasambe (2018). Butterflies observed in this study were categorized into five categories on the basis of their abundance under different score classes such as: very common (VC) 80–100%, common (C) 60–80%, occasional (O) 40–60%, rare (R) 20–40% and very rare (VR) below 20% (Aneesh et al. 2013).

 

Results and Discussion

The study revealed the presence of 151 species of butterflies, belonging to five families. The checklists of all the species observed with their status are given in Table 1. Family-wise distribution of butterflies species showed that, Nymphalidae was the most dominant with 52 species (35% of total species), followed by Lycaenidae with 33 species (22%), Hesperiidae with 25 species (17%), Pieridae with 24 species (16%), and Papilionidae with 15 species (10%). On the basis of the frequency of occurrence of each butterfly species’ abundance, we calculated that 68 (46%) species were common followed by 35 (23%) rare, 30 (20%) very common, 13 (9%) occasional, and 3 (2%) very rare species (Fig. 2).

Thirteen taxa listed in SWS were found to be endemic species of which six species are endemic to the Western Ghats, viz.: Pachliopta pandiyana, Papilio dravidarum, Troides minos, Kallima horsfieldi, Idea malabarica, and Caltoris canaraica (Kunte 2008); five species, viz.: Discophora lepida, Cirrochroa thais, Mycalesis patina, Cethosia mahratta, and Pareronia ceylanica endemic to the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka (Kasambe 2018); and two species, viz.: Prioneris sita and Papilio polymnestor endemic to peninsular India and Sri Lanka (Kunte 2008; Kasambe 2018).

Butterflies are sensitive to changes in the habitat and climate, which influence their distribution and abundance (Wynter-Blyth 1957). The study area hosts 24 scheduled butterfly species: seven species under Schedule I Part IV, 13 species under Schedule II, and four species under Schedule IV of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 (Arora 2003; Gupta & Mondal 2005) (Table 1).

The present study reports for the first time preliminary information on the butterfly species diversity of Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary, which can be used in monitoring ecosystem health, stability and functioning of the study area (Mandal 2016).  Occurrence of the schedule and endemic species in the study area indicates that SWS is home to a rich diversity of butterflies.

 

 

Table1. Checklist of butterflies along with their conservation status in Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Shivamogga, Karnataka.

 

 

Common name

Scientific name

Status

WPA 1927

Family: Papilionidae

 

1

Crimson Rose

Pachliopta hector Linnaeus, 1758

VC

Sch. I

2

Common Rose

Pachliopta aristolochiae Fabricius, 1775

R

 

3

Malabar Rose*

Pachliopta pandiyana Moore, 1881

R

 

4

Common Jay

Graphium doson C. & R. Felder, 1864

C

 

5

Tailed Jay

Graphium agamemnon Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

6

Spot Swordtail

Graphium nomius Esper, 1799

C

 

7

Southern Bluebottle

Graphium teredon C. & R. Felder, 1865

R

 

8

Common Mime

Papilio clytia Linnaeus, 1758

VC

Sch. I

9

Lime Butterfly

Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

10

Common Mormon

Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

11

Blue Mormon***

Papilio polymnestor Cramer, 1775

VC

 

12

Common Banded Peacock

Papilio crino Fabricius, 1792

R

 

13

Red Helen

Papilio helenus Linnaeus, 1758

O

 

14

Malabar Raven*

Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, 1880

C

 

15

Southern Birdwing*

Troides minos Cramer, 1779

C

 

Family: Lycaenidae

 

16

Common Silverline

Spindasis vulcanus Fabricius, 1775

C

 

17

Common Pierrot

Castalius rosimon Fabricius, 1775

VC

Sch. I

18

Banded Blue Pierrot

Discolampa ethion Westwood, 1851

VC

 

19

Dark Pierrot

Tarucus ananda de Niceville, 1883

C

Sch. IV

20

Striped Pierrot

Tarucus nara Kollar, 1848

R

 

21

Red Pierrot

Talicada nyseus Guerin-Meneville, 1843

C

 

22

Common Cerulean

Jamides celeno Cramer, 1775

C

 

23

Dark Cerulean

Jamides bochus Stoll, 1782

VR

 

24

Lime Blue

Chilades lajus Stoll, 1780

C

 

25

Gram Blue

Euchrysops cnejus Fabricius, 1798

C

Sch. II

26

Zebra Blue

Leptotes plinius Fabricius, 1793

C

 

27

Pea Blue

Lampides boeticus Linnaeus, 1767

C

Sch. II

28

Tiny Grass Blue

Zizula hylax Fabricius, 1775

R

 

29

Dark Grass Blue

Zizeeria karsandra Moore, 1865

R

 

30

Common Hedge Blue

Acytolepis puspa Horsfield, 1828

C

Sch. I

31

Lesser Grass Blue

Zizina otis Fabricius, 1787

VC

 

32

Plain Hedge Blue

Celastrina lavendularis Moore, 1877

C

 

33

Large Oakblue

Arhopala amantes Hewitson, 1862

R

 

34

Indian Oakblue

Arhopala atrax Hewitson, 1862

R

 

35

Common Ciliate Blue

Anthene emolus Godart, 1824

C

 

36

Pointed Ciliate Blue

Anthene lycaenina C. Felder, 1868

C

Sch. II

37

Indian Red Flash

Rapala iarbus Fabricius, 1787

C

 

38

Indigo Flash

Rapala varuna Horsfield, 1829

C

Sch. II

39

Slate Flash

Rapala manea Hewitson, 1863

C

 

40

Yamfly

Loxura atymnus Stoll, 1780

C

 

41

Plum Judy

Abisara echerius Stoll, 1790

VC

 

42

Monkey Puzzle

Rathinda amor Fabricius, 1775 

C

 

43

Plains Cupid

Chilades pandava Horsfield, 1829

VC

 

44

Grass Jewel

Freyeria trochylus Freyer, 1845

C

 

45

Forget-Me-Not

Catochrysops strabo Fabricius, 1793

C

 

46

Common Apefly

Spalgis epius Westwood, 1852

C

 

47

Common Lineblue

Prosotas nora Felder, 1860

VC

 

48

Indian Sunbeam

Curetis thetis Drury, 1773

R

 

Family: Nymphalidae

 

49

Club Beak

Libythea myrrha Godart, 1819

R

 

50

Common Castor

Ariadne merione Cramer, 1777

C

 

51

Angled Castor

Ariadne ariadne Linnaeus, 1763

R

 

52

Tawny Coster

Acraea violae Fabricius, 1793

VC

 

53

Blue Tiger

Tirumala limniace Cramer, 1775

VC

 

54

Dark Blue Tiger

Tirumala septentrionis Butler, 1874

C

 

55

Plain Tiger

Danaus chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758

R

 

56

Striped Tiger

Danaus genutia Cramer, 1779

C

 

57

Glassy Tiger

Parantica aglea Stoll, 1782

R

 

58

Grey Count

Cynitia lepidea Butler, 1868

R

  Sch. II

59

Common Crow

Euploea core Cramer, 1780

VC

Sch. IV

60

Danaid Eggfly

Hypolimnas misippus Linnaeus, 1764

C

Sch. I

61

Great Eggfly

Hypolimnas bolina Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

62

Southern Blue Oakleaf*

Kallima horsfieldi Kollar, 1844

O

 

63

Autumn Leaf

Doleschallia bisaltide Cramer, 1777

R

Sch. I

64

Lemon Pansy

Junonia lemonias Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

65

Peacock Pansy

Junonia almana Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

66

Yellow Pansy

Junonia hierta Fabricius, 1798

C

 

67

Chocolate  Pansy

Junonia iphita Cramer, 1779

C

 

68

Gray Pansy

Junonia atlites Linnaeus, 1763

R

 

69

Blue Pansy

Junonia orithya Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

70

Rustic

Cupha erymanthis Drury, 1773

C

 

71

Baronet

Symphaedra nais Forster, 1771

R

 

72

Nigger

Orsotriaena medus Fabricius, 1775

C

 

73

Commander

Moduza procris Cramer, 1777

R

 

74

Common Sailer

Neptis hylas Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

75

Common Leopard

Phalanta phalantha Drury, 1773

VC

 

76

Common Five-ring

Ypthima baldus Fabricius, 1775

C

 

77

Common Three-ring

Ypthima asterope Klug, 1832

C

 

78

Common Four-ring

Ypthima huebneri Kirby, 1871

VC

 

79

Common Baron

Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777

C

 

80

Common Lascar

Pantoporia hordonia Stoll, 1790

R

 

81

Common Nawab

Polyura athamas Drury, 1773

R

 

82

Cruiser

Vindula erota Fabricius, 1793

O

 

83

Clipper

Parthenos sylvia Cramer, 1775

VC

Sch. II

84

Southern Duffer**

Discophora lepida Moore, 1857

O

Sch. II

85

Tamil Yeoman**

Cirrochroa thais Fabricius, 1787

R

 

86

Indian Red Admiral

Vanessa indica Herbst, 1794

R

 

87

Painted Lady

Vanessa cardui Linnaeus, 1758

O

 

88

Blue Admiral

Kaniska canace Linnaeus, 1763

O

 

89

Common Evening Brown

Melanitis leda Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

90

Dark Evening Brown

Melanitis phedima Cramer, 1780

C

 

91

Common Bushbrown

Mycalesis perseus Fabricius, 1775

C

 

92

Glad-eye Boshbrown**

Mycalesis patnia Moore, 1857

R

 

93

Dark-branded Bushbrown

Mycalesis mineus Linnaeus 1758

C

Sch. II

94

Tamil Treebrown

Lethe drypetis Hewitson, 1863

O

 

95

Bamboo Treebrown

Lethe europa Fabricius, 1775

O

Sch. I

96

Tailed Palmfly

Elymnias caudata Butler, 1871

C

 

97

Common Palmfly

Elymnias hypermnestra Linnaeus, 1763

C

 

98

Common Map

Cyrestis thyodamas Boisduval, 1846

VR

 

99

Tamil Lacewing**

Cethosia mahratta Moore, 1872

O

 

100

Malabar Tree Nymph*

Idea malabarica Moore, 1877

VR

 

Family: Pieridae

 

101

Indian Cabbage White

Pieris canidia Linnaeus, 1768

C

 

102

Common Albatross

Appias albina Boisduval, 1836

R

Sch. II

103

Pioneer

Anaphaeis aurota Fabricius, 1793

VC

 

104

Common Emigrant

Catopsilia pomona Fabricius, 1775

C

 

105

Mottled Emigrant

Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus, 1758

C

 

106

Common Jezebel

Delias eucharis Drury, 1773

C

 

107

Painted Sawtooth***

Prioneris sita C. & R. Felder, 1865

R

Sch. IV

108

Common Grass Yellow

Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, 1758

VC

 

109

Small Grass Yellow

Eurema brigitta Stoll, 1780

C

 

110

One-Spot Grass Yellow

Eurema andersoni Moore, 1886

C

 

111

Three-spot Grass Yellow

Eurema blanda Boisduval, 1836

C

 

112

Great Orange Tip

Hebomoia glaucippe Linnaeus, 1758

R

 

113

White Orange Tip

Ixias marianne Cramer, 1779

R

 

114

Yellow Orange Tip

Ixias pyrene Linnaeus, 1764

R

 

115

Crimson Tip

Colotis danae Fabricius, 1775

C

 

116

Plain Orange Tip

Colotis aurora Cramer, 1780

C

 

117

Small Orange Tip

Colotis etrida Boisduval, 1836

C

 

118

Large Salmon Arab

Colotis fausta Olivier, 1804

R

 

119

Small Salmon Arab

Colotis amata Cramer, 1775

R

 

120

Common Wanderer

Pareronia hippia Cramer, 1776

C

Sch. II

121

Dark Wanderer**

Pareronia ceylanica C. & R. Felder, 1865

O

 

122

Common Gull 

Cepora nerissa Fabricius, 1775

C

Sch. II

123

Lesser Gull

Cepora nadina Lucas, 1852

C

Sch. II

124

Psyche 

Leptosia nina Fabricius, 1793

R

 

Family: Hesperiidae

 

125

Chestnut Bob

Iambrix salsala Moore, 1865

VC

 

126

Indian Palm Bob

Suastus gremius Fabricius, 1798

C

 

127

Indian Skipper

Spialia galba Fabricius, 1793

R

 

128

Common Grass Dart

Taractrocera maevius Fabricius, 1793

R

 

129

Tamil Grass Dart

Taractrocera ceramas Hewitson, 1868

VC

 

130

Common Palm Dart

Telicota colon Fabricius, 1775

VC

 

131

Dark Palm Dart

Telicota bambusae Moore, 1878

VC

 

132

Indian Dartlet

Oriens goloides Moore, 1881

C

 

133

Tamil Dartlet

Oriens concinna Elwes & Edwards, 1897

R

Sch. IV

134

White Banded Awl

Hasora badra Hubner, 1818

C

 

135

Common Banded Awl

Hasora chromus Cramer, 1780

VC

 

136

Brown Awl

Badamia exclamationis Fabricius, 1775

O

 

137

Common Snow Flat

Tagiades japetus Stoll, 1781

C

 

138

Water Snow Flat

Tagiades litigiosa Moeschler, 1878

VC

 

139

Common Yellow-breasted Flat

Gerosis bhagava Moore, 1866

C

 

140

Tricoloured Pied Flat

Coladenia indrani Moore, 1866

C

 

141

Fulvous Pied Flat

Pseudocoladenia dan Fabricius, 1787

C

 

142

Common Redeye

Matapa aria Moore, 1866

O

 

143

Variable Swift

Pelopidas mathias Fabricius, 1798

VC

 

144

Rice Swift

Borbo cinnara Wallace, 1866

VC

 

145

Kanara Swift*

Caltoris canaraica Moore, 1884

C

 

146

Dingy Scrub Hopper

Aeromachus dubius Elwes & Edwards, 1897

R

 

147

Bush Hopper

Ampittia dioscorides Fabricius 1793

C

 

148

Common Banded Demon

Notocrypta paralysos Wood-Mason & de Niceville, 1881

C

 

149

Grass Demon

Udaspes folus Cramer, 1775

O

 

150

Indian Ace

Halpe hindu Evans, 1937

C

Sch. II

151

Southern Spotted Ace

Thoressa astigmata Swinhoe, 1890

VR

 

 

 

Endemism: *-—Endemic to Western Ghats | **—Endemic to Western Ghats and Sri Lanka | ***—Endemic to Peninsular India and Sri Lanka.  Legal Status: IWPA, 1972, Schedules I to IV. Status: VC—Very common | C—Common | O—Occasional | R—Rare | VR—Very Rare.

 

For figures & images – click here

 

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