Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 11 December 2018 | 10(14): 12859–12906

 

 

The birds of Kurdistan Province, western Iran

 

Fatah Zarei 1, Seyed Naseh Hosseini 2, Ridha Hassan Hussein 3, Jalal Pezeshk 4, Mariwan Rahim 5 & Loghman Maleki6

 

1 Zoology Section, Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran

2,4 Zarivar Bird Records Group Bureau, Chya Green Association, Marivan 6671915640, Iran

2 Kurdistan Provincial Representatives, Iran Bird Records Committee (IBRC), Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Biology, School of Science, University of Sulaimani, As Sulaymaniyah, P.O.Box 334 Sulaimani, Iraq

5 Sulaimani Directorate of Environment, As Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

6 Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj 66177-15175, Iran 

1 fataahzarei@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 sey.naseh@gmail.com, 3 ridha.hussein@univsul.edu.iq, 4 pezeshk.jalal1981@gmail.com, 5 biomariwan@gmail.com, 6 l.maleki@uok.ac.ir

 

 

 

Abstract: A checklist of the birds of Kurdistan Province, western Iran, is presented based on records of avian species whose presence was confirmed in the area as a result of field surveys conducted from 2010 to 2018, literature review, and personal communications from researchers.  This edition of the checklist includes 310 species of 23 orders and 59 families.  Accepted English names, scientific names, authority, remarks on taxonomy, status, habitat, vernacular names in Kurdish, and conservation status pertaining to the birds of this region are given.  Our work comprises the first ornithological document to cover all the bird species recorded to date in this province.

 

Keywords: Avifauna, checklist, conservation, habitat, status, taxonomy.

 

 

Kurdish abstract: puxte: lîstî pêdaçuneweyi  ballindekanî nawçeyi kurdistanî rojawayi êran leserbinemayi tomarî ew core ballindaneyi ke le nawçekeda çespênrawe xiraweterrû, em tomaraneş le encamî rupêwî kêllgeyî le nêwan sallanî 2010-2018 kokrawetewe, kokrdineweyi zaniyarî le billawkrawekan û herweha ew peywendiye kesiyaneyi ke legell twêjerekanda hebuwe. lem çapeda 310 corballinde keser be 23 pol û 59 xêzanin xiraweterrû. le polênikrdinekeda; nawî înglîzî, nawî zanistî, nawî danerekan, bariyan, nşîngeyan, nawekaniyan be zimanî dayk (kurdî) û herweha barî parêzirawyan ke bestirawetewe bew ballindaneyi ke lem nawçeyedaye baskrawe. karekeyi ême yekemîn bellgenameyi ballindenasîye, hemû ew core ballindane degrêtewe ke ta emirro le nawçekeda tomarkrawn.

 

klîlewşe: ballindekanî nawçeyek, lîstî pêdaçunewe, parêziraw, nşînge, bar, polêninasî.

 

 

 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4235.10.14.12859-12906   |  ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:80949A3C-2352-4295-98F8-D2020124BE4A

 

Editor: Reuven Yosef, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Eilat, Israel.    Date of publication: 11 December 2018 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # 4235 | Received 04 May 2018 | Final received 14 October 2018 | Finally accepted 29 October 2018

 

Citation: Zarei, F., S.N. Hosseini, R.H. Hussein, J. Pezeshk, M. Rahim & L. Maleki (2018). The birds of Kurdistan Province, western Iran. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(14): 12859–12906; https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.4235.10.14.12859-12906

 

Copyright: © Zarei et al. 2018. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Chya Green Association.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author Details: Fatah Zarei is currently a PhD student of Systematic Zoology at Shiraz University. He has completed his MSc in Molecular Systematics at Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran. The general area of his interest is Molecular Ecology and Phylogeography, but he has been studying the diversity and distribution of birds of Kurdistan for several years. Seyed Naseh Hosseini is a professional birdwatcher at Chya Green Association and the provincial representative of Kurdistan at Iran Bird Records Committee (IBRC). Dr. Ridha Hassan Hussein is an Assistant Professor of Zoology at University of Sulaimani, and currently, the president of university. Jalal Pezeshk is a local birdwatcher and wildlife photographer at Chya Green Association. Mariwan Rahim received his MSc degree in Applied Ecology and Conservation from University of East Anglia, UK. Currently, he is an ecologist and wildlife expert at Sulaimani Directorate of Environment. Dr. Loghman Maleki is an Assistant Professor of Systematic Zoology at University of Kurdistan.

 

Author Contribution: FZ conceived and designed the work. FZ, SNH, JP, MR and LM conducted field surveys and data collection. FZ led the writing of the manuscript with inputs from RHH, MR and LM. All the authors equally contributed in refining the manuscript drafts and approved the final version.

 

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Heidar Veisi from Kurdistan Provincial Office of the Department of the Environment for providing facilities for sampling and accessibility to the study area.  We would also like to thank Sherko Kanisanani and Namegh Khodayar for their help during the fieldwork.

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Many international and Iranian ornithologists investigated the avifauna of Iran over the past two centuries (Khaleghizadeh 2007; Roselaar & Aliabadian 2007).  As a result, a total of 551 bird species from 26 orders and 84 families was recorded from Iran (Khaleghizadeh et al. 2017b).  While the avifauna of the southern Caspian region and northwestern, northeastern, and southern regions of Iran was well covered in these studies, that of some provinces in the west was scantily covered ( Roselaar & Aliabadian 2007; Khaleghizadeh et al. 2011).

Situated in western Iran, Kurdistan Province supports a significant number of bird species, especially some globally threatened species.  While the herpetofauna (Rastegar-Pouyani et al. 2009; Rastegar-Pouyani 2011; Bahmani et al. 2012, 2014) and ichthyofauna (Esmaeili et al. 2011, 2017; Imanpour-Namin et al. 2015; Zarei & Rajabi-Maham 2017; Sadeghi et al. in press) of this province were well studied, no comprehensive survey of its avifauna was published yet.  The great habitat diversity of this province highlights the need for ornithological studies.  Herein we present a revised and up-to-date checklist of its bird species with notes on their taxonomy, status, habitat, and conservation.

 

 

Materials and Methods

 

Study area

Kurdistan Province is located on the western edge of the Iranian plateau (total area 28,203km2, between 34.73–36.50 0N and 45.51–48.26 0E), sharing its northern border with the Western Azerbaijan Province, the southern border with Kermanshah Province, the western border with Iraqi Kurdistan region, and the eastern border with Zanjan and Hamedan provinces (Fig. 1).  The altitude ranges from 900m to 3,390m.  The annual precipitation ranges from 400mm in the eastern and central highlands (Images 1 & 2) to more than 800mm in the western mountainous areas (Image 3; Ghasriani 1998).  It maintains a rich flora (2,110 species in 113 families and 629 genera or about 25% of plant species recorded throughout the country; Maroufi 2012).  It is placed in the middle of the Irano-Anatolia biodiversity hotspot and includes a variety of mountainous habitats with Persian Oak Quercus brantii forests (Image 3), numerous artificial and natural water bodies (Images 4 & 5), and meadows with cold Mediterranean climate.  It possesses four protected areas (namely, Shahu-Kusalan, Abdolrazaq, Bijar, and Badr & Parishan; Fig. 1) and one wildlife refuge (Zarivar Wildlife Refuge; Image 5).  Zarivar Lake (or Zarivar Wetland; 35.900N & 46.200E), located in the west of the province, is an important bird area (IBA; Evans 1994) and a wetland with international importance in the Middle East (Scott 1995).

 

Study method

In the present paper, only those species whose presence was confirmed in Kurdistan Province via field surveys in the western half of the province from 2010 to 2018, literature review (Scott et al. 1975; Mansoori 2013; Kaboli et al. 2016; Khaleghizadeh et al. 2017a,b; Zarei et al. 2017, 2018, in press; IBRC 2018), mid-winter waterbirds census data (DOE MWWC Data 2018), and personal communications with local ornithologists are listed.

The birds were observed through a Swarovski ATX/STX spotting scope and a Beileshi 10×50 396FT/1000YDS sports military optics binoculars.  Images were taken using a Canon EOS 70D camera equipped with a Canon 100–400 mm f/4.5–5.6 L IS lens.

The classification followed here was based on the IOC World Bird List 2017.  In our taxonomic list, we first mention orders and families, then species.  For each species, we present the scientific name, authority, English name, Kurdish name, status, habitat, IUCN and CITES categories, and the status of each species under Iran’s Environmental Laws (Parliamentary Affairs 2000).  In remarks, whatever information available on the confirmed and hypothetical subspecies pertaining to the birds of Kurdistan Province and nearby regions are given (extracted from Kaboli et al. 2016; Khaleghizadeh et al. 2017a).

 

Habitat type

The bird species occupied 15 habitat types in Kurdistan Province and were used in this checklist following habitat types represented by Kaboli et al. (2016):

(1) sparsely wooded meadows, (2) steppes, (3) dense forests and woodlands, (4) mountain brooks and rivers, (5) short bush and thorn scrub, (6) forest and woodland fringes, (7) dense bushlands, (8) wetlands, (9) boulder-strewn mountains, (10) semi-deserts, (11) human settlements (cities & villages), (12) open landscapes (meadows, plains & moorlands), (13) mountains, (14) lakes and rivers, and (15) sparse woodlands.

 

Status

Status includes individuals or various populations existing in different regions of the province as residents, summer visitors, winter visitors, passage migrants, or vagrants that were extracted from Kaboli et al. (2016) and Khaleghizadeh et al. (2017a) and also based on our observations and personal communications:

Resident (R): Most, if not all, individuals in a population are sedentary, i.e., remain in or reasonably close to their breeding areas throughout the year.

Summer visitor and breeder (S): Migratory birds that occur in their breeding areas only during the breeding season, typically arriving in spring (March or April) and departing in autumn (August or September).  Summer non-breeder status is denoted by ‘s’.

Winter visitor (W): Migratory birds that arrive in the region in autumn, remain throughout winter (December–February), and depart in spring.

Passage migrant (P): Migratory birds that occur in the region only on passage during the spring and/or autumn migration seasons (typically March to May and late July to early November); they neither breed in the region nor occur there in winter.

Vagrant (V): A bird well outside its normal range and presumably lost; the occurrence of vagrants is rare and unpredictable.

 

Conservation

The international and national conservation statuses for each bird species are provided in this section:

The level of conservation determined by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Data Deficient (DD), Least Concern (LC), or not recognized (NR).

The appendix in which a species is listed in the Convention on Interactional Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): I, II, or III.

The national level of conservation, defined and implemented by the Iranian Department of Environment (DOE), for each species is presented here: endangered (End.), protected (Prot.), unprotected (no letter), and pest species (Pest).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Results

 

The avifauna of Kurdistan Province comprises 310 species of 23 orders and 59 families (Table 1).

This checklist presented 22 bird species for Kurdistan Province that were considered as rare for Iran by several authors (Scott 2008; Roselaar & Aliabadian 2009; Khaleghizadeh et al. 2011) and Iran’s Bird Records Committee (IBRC).  Rare species are marked by an asterisk (*) symbol in Table 1.

The most diverse order is Passeriformes with 138 species (44.5%) of avifauna, followed by Charadriiformes (53 species, 17.1%), Accipitriformes and Anseriformes (each with 23 species, 7.4%), and Pelecaniformes (15 species, 4.8%) (Fig. 2).

The most diverse families are Scolopacidae with 25 species (8%) of avifauna, followed by Anatidae and Muscicapidae (23 species each, 7.4%), Accipitridae (22 species, 7.1%), Laridae (15 species, 4.8%), Fringillidae (12 species, 3.9%), and Sturnidae (10 species, 3.2%).  Twenty-one families have only one species each (Fig. 3).

Among the reported species, 279 species (90%) are LC, three NR (1%), eight VU (2.6%), four EN (1.3%), and 16 NT (5.2%) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2018).  Six species are listed in Appendix I and 37 species in Appendix II of the CITES.   In addition, 14 species are endangered (End.), 55 are protected (Prot.), 232 are unprotected, and nine are pests based on definitions of the Iranian DOE (Fig. 4).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Remarks

1. Anser anser rubrirostris Swinhoe, 1871 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

2. Anser albifrons albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

5. Cygnus columbianus bewickii Yarrel, 1830 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

9. The nominate form is common in Iran.

11. Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

13. Anas crecca crecca Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

22. Mergus merganser merganser Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

24. Alectoris chukar kurdestanica Meinertzhagen, 1923 occurs in northwestern Iran east to Alborz and Kurdistan (Vaurie 1965).

26. Perdix perdix canescens Buturlin, 1906 occurs in northwestern Iran, Zagros to Lorestan and perhaps in the south Caspian region.

27. Coturnix coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

29. Podiceps cristatus cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

30. Podiceps nigricollis nigricollis Brehm, 1831 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

33. Ciconia ciconia ciconia (Linnaeus, 1758) is the form that breeds commonly in northern and western Iran and winters in southwestern Iran.

35. Platalea leucorodia leucorodia Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

36. Botaurus stellaris stellaris (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

37. Ixobrychus minutus minutus (Linnaeus, 1766) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

38. Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

41. Ardea cinerea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

42. Ardea purpurea purpurea (Linnaeus, 1766) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

43. Ardea alba alba Linnaeus, 1758 is a common passage migrant and winter visitor occurring in wetlands throughout Iran.

44. Egretta garzetta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

48. Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Staunton, 1796) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

49. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

50. Gypaetus barbatus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

51. Neophron percnopterus percnopterus (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

52. Gyps fulvus fulvus (Hablizl, 1783) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

58. Aquila nipalensis orientalis Cabanis, 1854 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

60. Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri Severtzov, 1888 is the only form likely to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1965; Erard & Etchécopar 1970; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

62. Accipiter nisus nisus (Linnaeus, 1758) was recorded in northern and western Iran (Vaurie 1965).

63. Accipiter gentilis marginatus (Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783) is the form likely to occur in Iran.

64. Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

68. Milvus migrans migrans (Boddaert, 1783) occurs in Iran, except in the southwestern and southern regions.  Milvus migrans lineatus (Gray, 1831) occurs in southern and southwestern Iran (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

69. Haliaeetus albicilla albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

70. Buteo rufinus rufinus (Cretzschmar, 1829) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

71. Buteo buteo vulpinus (Gloger, 1833) is a fairly common passage migrant throughout northern, western, and southwestern Iran, with small numbers remaining throughout the winter (Kaboli et al. 2016).

72. Otis tarda tarda Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

73. Rallus aquaticus aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758 occurs in northern Iran while R. a. korejewi Zarudny, 1905 occurs in eastern and southern Iran in the Zagros from Lorestan to Kerman (Vaurie 1965).

77. Two subspecies occur in Iran, Porphyrio poliocephalus seistanicus and P. p. poliocephalus.  Birds from Sistan, the southern Caspian, Turkey, and (formerly) Syria are all similar in size and distinctly larger than birds from southwestern Iran (Khuzestan).  Birds from Khuzestan and Iraq are inseparable, being similar in size and colour to Pakistan/Indian birds and are thus P. p. poliocephalus.

78. Gallinula chloropus chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758) is the form widely known from Iran (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

79. Fulica atra atra Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

80. The form that breeds in northwestern Iran, northeastern Khorasan, Fars, and Sistan and the that occurs on passage in the northeastern Caspian are believed to be Grus grus lilfordi Sharpe, 1894 (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

81. Burhinus oedicnemus oedicnemus (Linnaeus, 1758) occurs in northwestern Iran and the region of Anzali west to southwestern Caspian (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970) while B. o. saharae (Reichenow, 1894) occurs in southwestern Iran (Vaurie 1963a, 1965; Message & Taylor 2005).

82. Most forms that occur in Iran are assumed to be Haematopus ostralegus longipes Buturlin, 1910 but it is possible that two other forms, H. o. ostralegus and H. o. buturlini, occur on passage and in winter.

87. Vanellus indicus aigneri (Laubmann, 1913) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

89. Charadrius hiaticula tundrae (Lowe, 1915) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

90. Charadrius dubius curonicus Gmelin, 1789 is the form known to occur widely in Iran (Vaurie 1965).

91. Charadrius alexandrines alexandrinus Linnaeus, 1758 is the form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

92. Charadrius leschenaultia scythicus Carlos Roselaar & Voisin, 2012 is the commonest form that occurs on passage in the southern Caspian region and in winter in the Persian Gulf.

96. The form that occurs in Iran is the nominate (Vaurie 1965).

97. Limosa limosa limosa (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

98. The forms that occur in Iran were previously included within the nominate form (Løppenthin 1951; Schüz 1959; Vaurie 1965; Erard & Etchécopar 1970; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970) but is now treated as a separate subspecies Limosa lapponica taymyrensis Engelmoer & Roselaar 1998 (Engelmoer & Roselaar 1998; Delany et al. 2009; Dickinson & Remsen 2013).

99. Numenius arquata orientalis Brehm, 1831 would seem to be the commonest form that occurs in Iran but many birds show intermediate characteristics between N. a. arquata and N. a. orientalis (Delany et al. 2009).

101. The subspecies that occurs in Iran needs verification.  The birds that breed in northwestern Iran and the Zagros were assigned to Tringa tetanus totanus (Linnaeus, 1758) by Vaurie (1965).  According to Delany et al. (2009), the birds that occur as passage migrants and winter visitors at wetlands throughout Iran belong to the population of T. t. ussuriensis Buturlin, 1934.

108. The form that occurs in Iran is the nominate (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

109. Calidris alba alba (Pallas, 1764) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

113. Calidris alpine centralis (Buturlin, 1932) is likely to be much the commonest form that occurs in Iran.

114. Calidris falcinellus falcinellus (Pontoppidan, 1763) is the only form known to occur in Iran (Delany et al. 2009).

118. Glareola pratincola pratincola (Linnaeus, 1766) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

123. Larus canus heinei Homeyer, 1853 is the only form known to occur in Iran.  The nominate form could occur as a vagrant or rare winter visitor.

127. Gelochelidon nilotica nilotica (Gmelin, 1789) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

129. Sternula albifrons albifrons (Pallas, 1764) is the only form that occurs in Iran (Vaurie 1965).

130. Sterna hirundo hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1965).  There is a possibility that S. h. longipennis could occur as a vagrant.

133. Chlidonias niger niger (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only subspecies likely to occur in Iran.

134. Pterocles orientalis orientalis (Linnaeus, 1758) occurs in western Iran reaching Firuz-Kuh in the north (Paludan 1940) and Shiraz in the south (Paludan 1938).

135. Columba livia gaddi Zarudny & Loudon, 1906 occurs throughout Iran except in the extreme southeastern region where it grades into C. l. neglecta Hume, 1873 (Vaurie 1965).

136. Columba oenas oenas Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

137. Columba palumbus iranica (Zarudny, 1910) is the form that occurs in northern Iran from Kurdistan east to northeastern Khorasan and in southern Iran from Khuzestan east to Shiraz (Vaurie 1965).

138. Streptopelia turtur turtur (Linnaeus, 1758) breeds in northern Iran from Azerbaijan, Ardabil, and Hamadan east through Gilan and Mazandaran to Firuzkuh (Tehran).  Streptopelia turtur arenicola (Hartert, 1894) occurs in central, southern, and eastern Iran from Lorestan and Khuzestan east to Baluchestan, in east, north to Golestan and Khorasan, grading into the nominate turtur on the southern slopes of Elburz (Vaurie 1961, 1965).

139. Streptopelia decaocto decaocto (Frivaldszky, 1838) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

140. Spilopelia senegalensis cambayensis (Gmelin, 1789) is the widespread form in Iran, except perhaps in the northeastern regions.

142. Cuculus canorus canorus Linnaeus, 1758 occurs in northwestern and northern Iran (Vaurie 1965) while C. c. subtelephonus Zarudny, 1914 occurs in Iran, except in the northwestern regions (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

143. Otus scops turanicus (Loudon, 1905) is the widespread breeding form in Iran, occurring from the northwestern region of the country east through the southern region and Alborz to northern Khorasan and southeast through the Zagros to Kerman (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).  Otus scops pulchellus (Pallas, 1771) migrates on its way to and from wintering areas in southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa (Vaurie 1965).

144. Bubo bubo interpositus Rothschild & Hartert, 1910 occurs in northwestern and northern Iran (Vaurie 1960, 1963b).  Bubo bubo nikolskii Zarudny, 1905 occurs in Khorasan south to Sistan, west to Kerman, and in the Zagros west at least as far as Lorestan (Vaurie 1965).

145. Strix aluco sanctinicolai (Zarudny, 1905) occurs in the Zagros from Kurdistan to Fars, and probably also in southwestern Azarbaijan (Vaurie 1965; Kaboli et al. 2016).

146. Athene noctua bactriana Blyth, 1847 is the only form recorded in Iran (Vaurie 1965; Porter & Aspinall 2010).

147. Asio otus otus (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

148. Asio flammeus flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

149. Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus Linnaeus, 1758 is known to migrate through Iran (Vaurie 1965) and C. e. meridionalis Hartert, 1896 is known to occur in northwestern Iran (Roselaar 1995).  Caprimulgus europaeus unwini Hume, 1871 breeds throughout Iran except in the northwestern regions, where it is replaced by C. e. meridionalis.

150. Tachymarptis melba tuneti (Tschusi, 1904) occurs in Iran except in the northwestern and northern regions (Vaurie 1965).

151. Apus apus pekinensis (Swinhoe, 1870) is the form that breeds throughout Iran (Vaurie 1965) and A. a. apus (Linnaeus, 1758) occurs on migration in Iran.

152. Apus affinis galilejensis (Antinori, 1855) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

153. Coracias garrulous garrulus Linnaeus, 1758 is the form that breeds in northwestern Iran and northern Iran (Vaurie 1965), while C. g. semenowi Loudon & Tschusi, 1902 is the form that breeds throughout much of Iran except the northwestern and northern regions, the southern Persian Gulf coast, and the southern Persian Baluchestan.

154. Halcyon smyrnensis smyrnensis Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1965).

155. Alcedo atthis atthis (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

156. Old records of Ceryle rudis rudisnow refer to the recently described subspecies C. r. syriacus Roselaar, 1995.  Ceryle rudis syriacus Roselaar, 1995 was recently described from specimens taken from many localities from Turkey southeast to southwestern Iran and south to Israel and Jordan (Roselaar 1995).

157. Merops persicus persicus Pallas, 1773 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

159. Upupa epops epops Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

160. Jynx torquilla torquilla (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form known to occur in Iran, although J. t. sarudnyi could occur on passage.

161. Dendrocopos minor morgani Zarudny & Loudon, 1904 is the form that occurs in western and southwestern Iran in the Zagros mountains (Vaurie 1965).

162. Dendrocopos medius sanctijohannis (Blanford, 1873) is the form that occurs in the oak forests of Zagros mountains.

163. Vaurie (1965) and Hüe & Etchécopar (1970) consider this species to be monotypic, but Dickinson & Remsen (2013) believe that there are three subspecies in Iran.  Dendrocopos syriacus syriacus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833) occurs in open woodlands and orchards from western Iran southeast through the Zagros oak forests to the Kerman highlands and Hormozgan (Kaboli et al. 2016).

164. Picus viridis innominatus (Zarudny & Loudon, 1905) occurs in the oak forests of western Zagros and Kurdistan to central Fars (Kaboli et al. 2016).

166. Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

168. Falco subbuteo subbuteo Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

169. Falco cherrug cherrug Gray, 1834 was recorded in northwestern Iran (Vaurie 1965; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).  Paludan (1938) mentioned a record of F. c. saceroides from Kermanshah.  Northeastern Iran is somewhat close to its global range but any specimen from western Iran is well outside the known global range of this form.

171. According to Vaurie (1965) and Hüe & Etchécopar (1970), Falco pelegrinoides pelegrinoides Temminck, 1829 probably occurs in northwestern Iran and perhaps in the Zagros in southwestern Iran.  Dickinson (2003) and Gill & Donsker (2017) include southwestern Iran within the global range of this subspecies.

172. According to Hue & Etchécopar (1970), Psittacula krameri borealis (Neumann, 1915) is the form that was introduced in Tehran and also in Iraq.  Its natural range extends as far west as southeastern Baluchestan in Pakistan.

173. Lanius collurio kobylini (Buturlin, 1906) is the form known to breed in Iran and to occur commonly on migration.  The nominate form also could occur on migration.

174. Lanius isabellinus isabellinus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

178. Lanius senator niloticus (Bonaparte, 1853) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

181. Garrulus glandarius anatoliae Seebohm, 1883 occurs in western and southwestern Iran in the Zagros.

182. Pica pica bactriana Bonaparte, 1850 is the only form that occurs in Iran.

183. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis (Gmelin, 1774) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

184. Pyrrhocorax graculus digitatus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833 is known from the western Zagros (Vaurie 1959) and presumably the form occurring throughout the Zagros east to Fars.

185. Coloeus monedula soemmerringii (Fischer von Waldheim, 1811) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

186. Iranian birds have bills that are markedly more slender than bills of the nominate form and it is therefore possible that the form Corvus frugilegus tschusii is valid.  Corvus frugilegus frugilegus Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran, unless C. f. tschusii is found to be valid.

187. Corvus cornix sharpie Oates, 1889 is a common and widespread resident in Iran, absent only from the central deserts, southwestern and southern lowlands, and Sistan & Baluchestan (Kaboli et al. 2016).

188. Corvus corax laurencei Hume, 1873 is the form that occurs in western Iran along the Zagros to Fars and Khuzestan and in eastern Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

189. Poecile lugubris anatoliae (Hartert, 1905) is thought to be the form that occurs in the Kalibar mountains in northern Azarbaijan (Roselaar 1995; Kaboli et al. 2016).  Poecile lugubris anatoliae probably grades into P. l. dubius in eastern Kurdistan or northwestern Zagros (Vaurie 1959).  Poecile lugubris dubius (Hellmayr, 1901) is a common resident in the Zagros from Kermanshah to Fars (Vaurie 1959; Kaboli et al. 2016).

190. Parus major blanfordi Prazak, 1894 occurs from Kurdistan and Zanjan throughout the Zagros along the southern slopes of Alborz and in the eastern Alborz from Gorgan to the Dasht area near the Golestan/Khorasan border, extending in the south to Kerman and Fars (Kaboli et al. 2016).

191. Cyanistes caeruleus satunini Zarudny, 1908 occurs in northwestern Iran from Azerbaijan south to eastern Kurdistan and Hamadan (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970), grading into C. c. persicus (Blanford, 1873) in Hamadan (Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).  Cyanistes caeruleus persicus is the form that occurs from western Kurdistan and Kermanshah southeast through Zagros to central Fars (Kaboli et al. 2016).

192. Remiz pendulinus menzbieri (Zarudny, 1913) is a rather common breeding bird in northwestern Iran, occurring southeast through Zagros possibly as far as Fars, and a winter visitor throughout southern Iran from Khuzestan to southern Baluchestan (Kaboli et al. 2016).

193. Panurus biarmicus russicus (Brehm, 1831) is known from the southern Caspian region, northern Khorasan in the Atrak basin, and Sistan & Baluchestan (Vaurie 1959).

194. Lullula arborea pallidae Zarudny, 1902 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

195. Alauda arvensis cantarella Bonaparte, 1850 is known from northwestern and northern Iran south to Khuzestan and Kerman (Vaurie 1959).  This may be the commonest form occurring on passage and in winter in northwestern and western Iran south to Khuzestan and the Persian Gulf coast.

196. Galerida cristata subtaurica (Kollibay, 1912) occurs in northern Iran east to Tehran and western Iran south to Khuzestan and Lorestan (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).  Galerida cristata iwanowi Loudon & Zarudny, 1903 is said to occur throughout Iran except in the southwestern, northwestern, and northern regions (AERC TAC 2003).

197. Eremophila alpestris penicillata (Gould, 1838) is the form that breeds in northern Iran east to northwestern Khorasan and in western Iran southeast through the Zagros to Fars (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

198. Calandrella brachydactyla artemisiana Banjkowski, 1913 is the form that breeds throughout much of Iran except in the eastern regions (Vaurie 1959).

199. Melanocorypha bimaculata bimaculata (Menetries, 1832) is the form that breeds in western and southern Iran from Azerbaijan through the Zagros to central Fars and Kerman (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

200. Vaurie (1959) gives the range of Melanocorypha calandra calandra (Linnaeus, 1766) in Iran as northwestern Iran and western Zagros to Lorestan; IOC  gives the range simply as northwestern Iran.  Vaurie (1959) gives the breeding range of M. c. psammochroa Hartert, 1904 in Iran as Zagros east from Lorestan, southern Iran, and Khorasan; however, IOC  gives the range as southern Iran, while Dickinson (2003) restricts the breeding range of this form in Iran to northeastern Iran and does not include Iraq within its global breeding range.

201. Alaudala rufescens heinei (Homeyer, 1873) is a winter visitor to Iran that occurs in northern, western, and eastern Iran (Vaurie 1959).

202. Riparia riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form that breeds in Iran and probably much the commonest form on migration.  Riparia riparia innominata Zarudny, 1916 is probably a regular passage migrant in Iran.

203. Hirundo rustica rustica (Linnaeus, 1758) is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

205. Many authors, including Vaurie (1959) and Hüe & Etchécopar (1970), assign all populations in western Eurasia to the nominate form.  The southern populations, including the birds that breed in Iran, however, are distinctly smaller than those from Delichon urbicum urbicum type locality in Sweden and are sometimes separated as D. u. meridionale.  This is the treatment adopted by IOC  and followed here.  Delichon urbicum urbicum (Linnaeus, 1758), as now recognized by IOC , probably occurs in Iran only as a passage migrant moving between breeding areas in western Siberia and winter quarters in Africa.  Following IOC, D. u. meridionale (Hartert, 1910) is presumably the form breeding in mountainous regions almost throughout Iran.

206. Cecropis daurica rufula (Temminck, 1835) is the only form likely to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Kaboli et al. 2016).

207. Cettia cetti orientalis Tristram, 1867 is the form that breeds commonly in northern Iran from Azerbaijan to Lorestan eastward to Tehran and Mazandarn (Vaurie 1959; Roselaar 1995).  Cettia cetti albiventris Severtzov, 1873 is the form that breeds in southern Iran from the western Zagros in Kermanshah and Lorestan east to Fars, Khorasan, the Kerman highlands, and the mountains of northern Baluchestan (Vaurie 1959; Desfayes & Praz 1978’ Kaboli et al. 2016).

208. Aegithalos caudatus passekii (Zarudny, 1904) is the form that occurs from the forested hills in southern Azerbaijan south to Kermanshah (Qasr-e Shirin) and east in the oak forests on the western slopes of Zagros to the Shiraz area in central Fars (Vaurie 1959; Kaboli et al. 2016).

209. Phylloscopus trochilus acredla (Linnaeus, 1758) is the commonest form that occurs in Iran.  Phylloscopus trochilus yakutensis Ticehurst, 1935 is likely to be a regular passage migrant through Iran.

210. Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Nilsson, 1819) probably is the commonest form on migration and in winter in most parts of Iran (Vaurie 1959).

214. Acrocephalus arundinaceus arundinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758) breeds in northwestern Iran east to the Sefid-Rud and is probably the form that breeds in western Iran and south to Kermanshah.  Acrocephalus arundinaceus zarudnyi Hartert, 1907 occurs in Iran on migration (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

215. Acrocephalus stentoreus brunnescens (Jerdon, 1839) is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

216. Acrocephalus melanopogon mimicus (Madarasz, 1903) is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970; Porter & Aspinall 2010).

217. Acrocephalus agricola septimus (Gavrilenko, 1954), which breeds from eastern Europe to western Kazakhstan and winters in India, probably occurs as a migrant in Iran.

219. Acrocephalus scirpaceus fuscus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833) is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959).  The nominate form breeds as close to Iran as central Turkey and could occur as a vagrant.

220. Iduna pallida elaeica (Lindermayer, 1843) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

222. Locustella naevia straminea Seebohm, 1881 occurs in the southern Caspian region, Khorasan, the Zagros, and Kerman and L. n. obscurior Buturlin, 1929 is known from the Zagros in southwestern Iran in winter (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

223. Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1758) is known to occur on migration in Iran, while S. a. dammholzi Stresemann, 1928 is the form that breeds in northern Iran (Vaurie 1959).

224. Sylvia borin woodwardi (Sharpe, 1877) is the only form known to occur on migration in Iran (Vaurie 1959).

226. The nominate Sylvia curruca curruca (Linnaeus, 1758) is a rather common summer visitor to forests in northern Azarbaijan and is a passage migrant in northern and western Iran, east to Golestan, Fars, and Hormozgan (Kaboli et al. 2016).

227. Dickinson (2003) does not mention Sylvia althaea zagrossiensis, noting that he follows Cramp & Brooks (1992).  This suggests that zagrossiensis was subsumed in althaea for some time, but the name may have persisted in other publications by oversight.  Vaurie (1954) believes that zagrossiensis is a valid race but indicated it with (o) [=poor subspecies] in Vaurie (1959).  The validity of zagrossiensis or, in fact, the occurrence of S. althaea in the Zagros was questioned, but the specimens collected by Koelz (1954) confirm that this species breeds in this region.  Clements et al. (2010) checklist  gives S. althaea as a monotypic species.

228. Aymí & Gargallo (2006) and IOC  believe that Sylvia crassirostris crassirostris Cretzschmar, 1830 occurs in northwestern Iran.  The range map given by Shirihai et al. (2001) depicted an approximate boundary between S. c. crassirostris and S. c. balchanica in northwestern Iran.  According to Vaurie (1959) and Hüe & Etchécopar (1970), S. c. balchanica Zarudny & Bilkevitch, 1918 is the form that breeds throughout much of Iran except in the southeastern region.

230. Sylvia communis communis Latham, 1787 is probably only a vagrant in Iran.  Sylvia communis volgensis Domaniewski, 1915 is probably a common migrant through Iran (Zarudny 1901).  Sylvia communis icterops Ménétries, 1832 is the form that breeds in Iran (Vaurie 1959) and most of the Middle East (Porter & Aspinall 2010).

231. Sylvia mystacea rubescens Blanford, 1874 is the form that breeds in western Iran (Porter & Aspinall 2010).

233. Troglodytes troglodytes zāgrossiensis Zarudny & Loudon, 1908 is known from the Zagros mountains (Vaurie 1959).  Hüe & Etchécopar (1970) included this form within T. t. hyrcanus Zarudny & Loudon, 1905.

234. Sitta europaea persica Witherby, 1903 is a fairly common resident in the oak forests of Zagros from Kurdistan southeast to central Fars (Vaurie 1959; Kaboli et al. 2016).

235. Sitta neumayer rupicola Blanford, 1873 is a common resident in the mountains of Azarbaijan and Alborz east to northwestern Khorasan and in western Zagros in Kurdistan.  Sitta neumayer tschitscherini Zarudny, 1904 is a common resident in the Zagros, from Nosoud and Qasr-e Shirin (Kermanshah) east to Esfahan and Fars (Vaurie 1959; Roselaar & Aliabadian 2007; Kaboli et al. 2016).

236. Sitta tephronota dresseri Zarudny & Buturlin, 1906 occurs in northwestern, western, and southwestern Iran (Vaurie 1959; Roselaar & Aliabadian 2007; Kaboli et al. 2016).

237. Tichodroma muraria muraria (Linnaeus, 1766) occurs in northwestern, northern, and western Iran (Vaurie 1959; Kaboli et al. 2016).

238. Acridotheres tristis tristis (Linnaeus, 1766) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

240. Sturnus vulgaris caucasicus Lorenz, 1887 is the widespread form that breeds in Iran, occurring from Azarbaijan east through northern Iran to Gorgan and south through western Iran and the Zagros to Central Fars and Kerman.  Sturnus vulgaris poltaratskyi Finsch, 1878 is a common wintering bird in Iran (Hue & Etchécopa 1970; Kaboli et al. 2016), while S. v. purpurascens Gould, 1868 is probably only a winter visitor to Iran.

241. Turdus torquatus amicorum Hartert, 1923 is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

242. Turdus merula syriacus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833 is the form that breeds in western and southern Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970; Kaboli et al. 2016), while T. m. intermedius (Richmond, 1896) is a winter visitor to Iran.

245. Turdus iliacus iliacus Linnaeus, 1758 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

246. Turdus philomelos philomelos Brehm, 1831 is the only form known with certainty to occur in Iran.  Turdus philomelos nataliae probably occurs as a winter visitor and was mentioned for Iran by Vaurie (1959) and Hüe & Etchécopar (1970).

247. Turdus viscivorus viscivorus Linnaeus, 1758 is the form that breeds in northern Iran east to Golestan (Vaurie 1959).

248. Cercotrichas galactotes familiaris (Ménétries, 1832) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

249. Muscicapa striata neumanni Poche, 1904 is the form that breeds in northwestern, northern, and southwestern Iran (Vaurie 1959).

250. Erithacus rubecula rubecula (Linnaeus, 1758) probably is a scarce winter visitor to Iran.  Erithacus rubecula caucasicus Buturlin, 1907 is recorded as a winter visitor to northwestern Iran.  Erithacus rubecula hyrcanus Blanford, 1874 is the form that breeds in the forests of northwestern Iran and the southern Caspian region; it is also recorded as a winter visitor in western and southern Iran east to Fars.  Erithacus rubecula tataricus Grote, 1928 is a winter visitor to northwestern and southwestern Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

251. Given the wide breeding range of Luscinia svecica svecica (Linnaeus, 1758) at high latitudes in Europe and Asia, it is likely that many birds migrate through Iran to and from their wintering grounds in southern Asia.

253. Luscinia megarhynchos africana (Fischer & Reichenow, 1884) is the most widespread form breeding in Iran, occurring from Azarbaijan and the southern Caspian region south through western Iran to Khuzestan, Fars, and Kerman (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970; Kaboli et al. 2016).  Luscinia megarhynchos golzii Cabanis, 1873 is also known to occur on migration through Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

257. Phoenicurus ochruros ochruros (Gmelin, 1774) breeds in northwestern Iran and the Alborz mountains east to Golestan and winters in southwestern Iran (Vaurie 1959; Kaboli et al. 2016).

258. Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a common and widespread passage migrant in spring and autumn.  Phoenicurus phoenicurus samamisicus (Hablizl, 1783) is a common summer visitor to the Caspian Forest and oak forests in Zagros (Kaboli et al. 2016).

260. Monticola solitaries longirostris (Blyth, 1847) is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

262. Saxicola rubicola rubicola (Linnaeus, 1766) is possibly a winter visitor to western Iran.

263. Saxicola maurus variegatus (Gmelin, 1774) is the form that breeds in northwestern Iran, the southern Caspian region, and western Iran south to Central Fars.  Saxicola maurus hemprichii Ehrenberg, 1833 is a passage migrant and winter visitor in western Iran (Kaboli et al. 2016).

265. Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (Linnaeus, 1758) is probably a common and widespread passage migrant in Iran, while O. o. libanotica (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833) is the form that breeds in Iran (Roselaar 1995; Dickinson 2003).

267. Oenanthe hispanica melanoleuca (Guldenstadt, 1775) is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

268. Oenanthe deserti atrogularis (Blyth, 1847) is the commonest form in Iran, breeding widely in the eastern half of the country west to Central Fars and wintering in southwestern and southern Iran (Vaurie 1949; Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

269. Oenanthe lugens persica (Seebohm, 1881) is the only form known to breed in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

270. Oenanthe finschii finschii (Heuglin, 1869) is the form that breeds in southwestern and southern Iran from Kurdistan and Kermanshah east through the Zagros to Fars and perhaps Kerman.

271. Cinclus cinclus persicus Witherby, 1906 is the form that occurs in the Zagros mountains east to Fars Province (Vaurie 1959).

272. Passer domesticus biblicus Hartert, 1904 is the form that occurs in northwestern and western Iran south to northern Kurdistan (Vaurie 1959; Roselaar & Aliabadian 2007).

273. Passer hispaniolensis transcaspicus Tschusi, 1902 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

274. Passer montanus transcaucasicus Buturlin, 1906 is a rather common resident in woodlands, orchards, and cultivation lands in northern Azarbaijan, in the south Caspian lowlands east to Gorgan, and on the southern slopes of Alborz east to Tehran (Kaboli et al. 2016).

276. Petronia petronia exigua (Hellmayr, 1902) is the form that breeds in northwestern and northern Iran east to the region of Gorgan; it also occurs in winter in southwestern and southern Iran.  Petronia petronia intermedia Hartert, 1901 is the form that breeds in the Zagros mountains, the Kerman highlands, and Khorasan (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

277. Gymnoris xanthocollis transfuga Hartert, 1904 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

278. Montifringilla nivalis gaddi Zarudny & Loudon, 1904 is the form that occurs in the Zagros.

280. Prunella modularis obscura (Hablizl, 1783) is the form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959).

281. Motacilla flava lutea (Gmelin, 1774), M. f. beema (Sykes, 1832), and M. f. thunbergi Billberg, 1828 are common and widespread passage migrants in Iran.  Motacilla flava feldegg Michahelles, 1830 is a common summer visitor to wetlands throughout northern and western Iran south to Khuzestan, Bushehr, central Fars, and Sistan and a common and widespread passage migrant (Vaurie 1959; Diesselhorst 1962; Porter & Aspinall 2010; Kaboli et al. 2016).

282. Motacilla citreola citreola Pallas, 1776 and M. c. werae (Buturlin, 1907) are known to occur on migration in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

283. Motacilla cinerea cinerea Tunstall, 1771 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

284. Separation of the subspecies has long been a subject of debate and there is still no consensus.

289. Anthus spinoletta coutellii Audouin, 1826 is the form that breeds in Iran and the only form known to occur on passage and in winter.

290. Fringilla coelebs coelebs Linnaeus, 1758 is a common winter visitor to Iran.

292. Coccothraustes coccothraustes nigricans Buturlin, 1908 is the form that breeds in Iran and probably the commoner of the two forms in winter.

294. Carpodacus erythrinus kubanensis Laubmann, 1915 is the form that breeds in northern Iran; it was also recorded on migration in the Zagros (Vaurie 1959).

295. Chloris chloris bilkevitchi (Zarudny, 1911) is the only form now recognized as occurring in Iran.  Vaurie (1959) and Hüe & Etchécopar (1970) list the birds that occur in Iran under the name C. c. turkestanica.

297. Linaria cannabina bella (Brehm, 1845) is the only form known to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

298. Carduelis carduelis niediecki Reichenow, 1907 is the form that breeds in the Zagros from southern Azarbaijan and Kurdistan southeast to Central Fars.  Carduelis carduelis brevirostris Zarudny, 1889 is the form that breeds in northwestern and northern Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

302. Emberiza calandra buturlini Johansen, 1907 is the form that occurs throughout Iran, except in Azarbaijan and the Caspian lowlands.

303. Emberiza citrinella erythrogenys Brehm, 1855 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

304. Emberiza leucocephalos leucocephalos Gmelin, 1771 is the only form likely to occur in Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).

305. Emberiza cia prageri Laubmann, 1915 is the form that occurs in southwestern and northern Iran, i.e., in the Zagros, in the mountains of Azarbaijan, and in the Alborz east to Golestan (IOC; Dickinson 2003).

306. Emberiza buchanani cerrutii de Filippi, 1863 is the form that breeds in Iran (Vaurie 1959).

307. Emberiza cineracea semenowi Zarudny, 1904 is the only form likely to occur in Iran.

310. Emberiza schoeniclus passerina Pallas, 1771 is a winter visitor, recorded in northern, western, and southern Iran.  Emberiza schoeniclus pallidior Hartert, 1904 is a winter visitor recorded in northwestern and southeastern Iran (Vaurie 1959; Hüe & Etchécopar 1970).  Emberiza schoeniclus caspia Ménétries, 1832 is a scarce and localized breeding bird in the wetlands in southern Caspian lowlands and Uromiyeh basin in Azarbaijan (Kaboli et al. 2016); according to Vaurie (1959), birds breeding in the Zagros south to Fars are of this form.

 

 

 

Table 1. A checklist of birds of Kurdistan Province, western Iran

 

 

English name

Species name

Authority

Kurdish name

Selected literature

Image

Status

Habitat

IUCN

CITES

DOE

 

I. Order Anseriformes

 

Wagler, 1831

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Family Anatidae

 

Leach, 1820

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Greylag Goose

Anser anser

(Linnaeus, 1758)

xash sî

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W, P, S

8; 12; 14

LC

 

 

2

Greater White-fronted Goose

A. albifrons

(Scopoli, 1769)

sî qeşanî gewrh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 12; 14

LC

 

Prot.

3

Lesser White-fronted Goose

A. erythropus*

(Linnaeus, 1758)

sî qeşanî biçûk

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 12; 14

VU

 

Prot.

4

Mute Swan

Cygnus olor

(Gmelin, 1789)

quwî bîdeng

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

5

Tundra Swan

C. columbianus*

(Ord, 1815)

quwî biçûk

Shil-Amaysh 2011

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

EN

6

Whooper Swan

C. cygnus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

quwî gewrh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

7

Common Shelduck

Tadorna tadorna

(Linnaeus, 1758)

helh tanc

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 12; 14

LC

 

 

8

Ruddy Shelduck

T. ferruginea

(Pallas, 1764)

surh qang

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W, P

8; 12; 14

LC

 

 

9

Gadwall

Mareca strepera

(Linnaeus, 1758)

qûn reş

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

 

10

Eurasian Wigeon

M. penelope

(Linnaeus, 1758)

qh şan

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

 

11

Mallard

Anas platyrhynchos

Linnaeus, 1758

sunh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

R, W, S

8; 14

LC

I

 

12

Northern Pintail

A. acuta

Linnaeus, 1758

rû kurh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W, P

8; 14

LC

 

 

13

Eurasian Teal

A. crecca

Linnaeus, 1758

currh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W, P

8; 14

LC

 

 

14

Northern Shoveler

A. clypeata

(Linnaeus, 1758)

lût pan

Zarei et al. 2017

6

W, P

8; 14

LC

 

 

15

Garganey

A. querquedula

(Linnaeus, 1758)

xlixl

Zarei et al. 2017

7

P

8; 14

LC

 

 

16

Marbled Duck

Marmaronetta angustirostris

(Menetries, 1832)

mirawî spîlkh

Scott 1995

 

P, W

8; 14

VU

 

Prot.

17

Red-crested Pochard

Netta rufina

(Pallas, 1773)

ser sûrî beḧdî

Zarei et al. 2017

8

W, S

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

18

Common Pochard

Aythya ferina

(Linnaeus, 1758)

ser sûr

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W, P

8; 14

VU

 

 

19

Ferruginous Duck

A. nyroca

(Güldenstädt, 1770)

mirawî xeneyî

Zarei et al. 2017

9

R

8; 14

NT

 

EN

20

Tufted Duck

A. fuligula

(Linnaeus, 1758)

mirawî cẍedar

Scott 2007

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

 

21

Smew

Mergellus albellus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

kanûn‌î serspî

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

22

Common Merganser

Mergus merganser*

Linnaeus, 1758

kanûn‌î gewrh

Scott 1995

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

23

White-headed Duck

Oxyura leucocephala

(Scopoli, 1769)

mirawî serspî

Scott 1995 & 2007

 

S

8; 14

EN

II

EN

 

II. Order Galliformes

 

Temminck, 1820

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Family Phasianidae

 

Horsfield, 1821

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

Chukar Partridge

Alectoris chukar

(Gray, 1830)

kew

Shil-Amaysh 2011

 

R

2; 9; 12; 13

LC

 

 

25

See-see Partridge

Ammoperdix griseogularis

Brandt, 1843

susîkh

Zarei et al. 2018

 

R

2; 6; 12; 13

LC

 

 

26

Grey Partridge

Perdix perdix*

(Linnaeus, 1758)

zirh kew

IBRC

 

R

7; 12

LC

 

 

27

Common Quail

Coturnix coturnix

(Linnaeus, 1758)

hh wîrdh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

S

2; 7; 12

LC

 

 

 

III. Order Podicipediformes

 

Fürbringer, 1888

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Family Podicipedidae

 

Bonaparte, 1831

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28

Little Grebe

Tachybaptus ruficollis

(Pallas, 1764)

pê bih qûnh

Zarei et al. 2017

10

R, W

8; 14

LC

 

 

29

Great Crested Grebe

Podiceps cristatus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

pê bih qûneyi serbih kllaw

Zarei et al. 2017

11

S

8; 14

LC

 

 

30

Black-necked Grebe

P. nigricollis

Brehm, 1831

pê bih qûneyi mil reş

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W, P

8; 14

LC

 

 

 

IV. Order Phoenicopteriformes

 

Fürbringer, 1888

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Family Phoenicopteridae

 

Bonaparte 1831

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

Greater Flamingo

Phoenicopterus roseus

Pallas, 1811

surh qurîng

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W, P

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

 

V. Order Ciconiiformes

 

Bonaparte, 1854

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Family Ciconiidae

 

Gray, 1840

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

Black Stork

Ciconia nigra

(Linnaeus, 1758)

ḧll‌îr

 

 

P, W

8; 12; 15

LC

II

Prot.

33

White Stork

Ciconia ciconia

(Linnaeus, 1758)

ḧacî leg leg

Zarei et al. 2017

12

S, s, P

8; 11; 12

LC

 

Prot.

 

VI. Order Pelecaniformes

 

Sharpe, 1891

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Family Threskiornithidae

 

Richmond, 1917

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

Glossy Ibis

Plegadis falcinellus

Linnaeus, 1766

qh rh naz

Zarei et al. 2017

13

P, S

1; 8; 12; 14

LC

 

 

35

Eurasian Spoonbill

Platalea leucorodia

Linnaeus, 1758

dinduk bîlh

Shabanian & Barati 2009

 

 

8; 14

LC

II

 

 

7. Family Ardeidae

 

Leach, 1820

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36

Eurasian Bittern

Botaurus stellaris

(Linnaeus, 1758)

waq

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

 

37

Little Bittern

Ixobrychus minutus

(Linnaeus, 1766)

şawh waq‌î biçûk

Zarei et al. 2017

 

S

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

38

Black-crowned Night Heron

Nycticorax nycticorax

(Linnaeus, 1758)

waq‌î şewî

Zarei et al. 2017

14

P, S, s

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

39

Squacco Heron

Ardeola ralloides

(Scopoli, 1769)

şawh zerdekh

Zarei et al. 2017

15

P

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

40

Western Cattle Egret

Bubulcus ibis

(Linnaeus, 1758)

şawh rîxinh

Zarei et al. 2017

16

P

1; 8; 12

LC

 

 

41

Grey Heron

Ardea cinerea

Linnaeus, 1758

şawh sultanî

Zarei et al. 2017

17

W, P

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

42

Purple Heron

A. purpurea

(Linnaeus, 1766)

şawh mil drîj

Zarei et al. 2017

18

S, P

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

43

Great Egret

A. alba

Linnaeus, 1758

şawh spîlkh

Zarei et al. 2017

19

W

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

44

Little Egret

Egretta garzetta

(Linnaeus, 1766)

şawh spîlkeyi biçûk

Zarei et al. 2017

20

P, W, S

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

 

8. Family Pelecanidae

 

Rafinesque, 1815

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

Great White Pelican

Pelecanus onocrotalus

Linnaeus, 1758

kelkî spî

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

46

Dalmatian Pelican

P. crispus

Bruch, 1832

kelkî bur

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

NT

I

EN

 

VII. Oeder Suliformes

 

Sharpe, 1891

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Family Phalacrocoracidae

 

Reichenbach, 1850

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

47

Pygmy Cormorant

Microcarbo pygmeus

(Pallas, 1773)

qel mirawî biçûk

Zarei et al. 2017

21

W

8; 14

LC

 

EN

48

Great Cormorant

Phalacrocorax carbo

(Linnaeus, 1758)

qel mirawî gewrh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

8; 14

LC

 

Prot.

 

VIII. Order Accipitriformes

 

Vieillot, 1816

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. Family Pandionidae

 

Sclater & Salvin, 1873

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49

Western Osprey

Pandion haliaetus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

helwî masî‌gr

Zarei et al. 2017

 

P

14

LC

II

EN

 

11. Family Accipitridae

 

Vieillot, 1816

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

Bearded Vulture

Gypaetus barbatus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

pîruzih

Zarei et al. 2018

 

R

9; 12; 13

NT

II

EN

51

Egyptian Vulture

Neophron percnopterus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

sîsark‌î mîsirî

IBRC

 

P, S

2; 5; 9; 12

EN

II

Prot.

52

Griffon Vulture

Gyps fulvus

(Hablizl, 1783)

şanh kûrh

Zarei et al. 2018

 

R

2; 12; 13

LC

II

Prot.

53

Cinereous Vulture

Aegypius monachus

(Linnaeus, 1766)

reşh dal

Zarei et al. 2018

 

R

2; 12; 13

NT

II

Prot.

54

Short-toed Snake Eagle

Circaetus gallicus

(Gmelin, 1788)

helwî pencih kurt

Zarei et al. 2017

22

S

2; 6; 7; 9

LC

II

Prot.

55

Lesser Spotted Eagle

Clanga pomarina

Brehm, 1831

helwî xalixalî

Shil-Amaysh 2011

 

P

1; 3; 6; 8

LC

II

Prot.

56

Greater Spotted Eagle

C. clanga

(Pallas, 1811)

helwî zelan

DOE MWWC Data

 

P

6; 8; 14; 15

VU

II

Prot.

57

Booted Eagle

Hieraaetus pennatus

(Gmelin, 1788)

helwî laq tûkin

Evans 1994

 

S

1; 6; 15

LC

II

Prot.

58

Steppe Eagle

Aquila nipalensis

(Hodgson, 1833)

helwî biyabanî

Zarei et al. 2018

 

P

2; 5; 10; 12

EN

II

Prot.

59

Eastern Imperial Eagle

A. heliaca

Savigny, 1809

helu

IBRC

 

W, P

1; 2; 8; 15

VU

I

EN

60

Golden Eagle

A. chrysaetos

(Linnaeus, 1758)

per kûr

Shil-Amaysh 2011

 

R

9; 12; 13

LC

II

EN

61

Levant Sparrowhawk

Accipiter brevipes*

(Severtzov, 1850)

waşeyi gewrh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

S

5; 15

LC

II

Prot.

62

Eurasian Sparrowhawk

A. nisus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

waşh

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W

5; 15

LC

II

Prot.

63

Northern Goshawk

A. gentilis*

(Linnaeus, 1758)

baz

Zarei et al. 2018

 

W

3; 6

LC

II

Prot.

64

Western Marsh Harrier

Circus aeruginosus

(Linnaeus, 1758)

şmqarî zelan

Zarei et al. 2017

 

R, S

8

LC

II

Prot.

65

Northern Harrier

C. cyaneus

(Linnaeus, 1766)

şmqarî bûr

Zarei et al. 2017

 

P, W

8; 12

LC

II

Prot.

66

Pallid Harrier

C. macrourus

Gmelin, 1770

şmqarî spî

Zarei et al. 2017

 

P

2; 12

NT

II

Prot.

67

Montagu's Harrier

C. pygargus*

(Linnaeus, 1758)

şmqarî genman

Zarei et al. 2017

 

P

5; 8

LC

II

Prot.

68

Black Kite

Milvus migrans

(Boddaert, 1783)

kûlareyi reş

Zarei et al. 2018

 

S, P

1; 8; 12

LC

II

Prot.

69

White-tailed Eagle

Haliaeetus albicilla

(Linnaeus, 1758)

helwî deryayî klk spî

Shil-Amaysh 2011

 

W

8; 14

LC

I

EN

70

Long-legged Buzzard

Buteo rufinus

(Cretzschmar, 1829)

başuwî laq drîj

Zarei et al. 2017

 

R, W

2; 5; 9

LC

II

Prot.

71

Common Buzzard

B. buteo

(Linnaeus, 1758)

başû

Zarei et al. 2017

 

W, P

6; 15

LC

II

Prot.

 

IX. Order Otidiformes

 

Wagler, 1830

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. Family Otididae

 

Rafinesque, 1815

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72

Great Bustard

Otis tarda*

Linnaeus, 1758

çirg

IBRC

 

S

2; 5; 12

VU

II

EN

 

X. Order Gruiformes

 

Bonaparte, 1854

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. Family Rallidae

 

Rafinesque, 1815

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

73

Water Rail

Rallus aquaticus

Linnaeus, 1758

mirîşkawîlh

Zarei et al. 2017

23

R, W, P

8

LC

 

 

74

Corn Crake

Crex crex

(Linnaeus, 1758)

mirîşkawîleyi xeneyî

Zarei et al. 2017

 

P

1; 12

LC

 

Prot.

75

Little Crake

Porzana parva

(Scopoli, 1769)