Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 March 2018 | 10(3): 11480–11483

 

 

 

 

Pternopetalum latipinnulatum (Apiaceae), a new record for the flora of India

 

Licha Jeri 1, Nazir Ahmad Bhat 2 & Yogendra Kumar 3

 

1,2,3 Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, North Eastern Hill University, Umshing Mawkynroh, Shillong, Meghalaya 793022, India

1 lichajeri2013@gmail.com, 2 nazirsultan786@gmail.com (corresponding author), 3 yktaxo786@gmail.com

 

 

 

doi: http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3867.10.3.11480-11483  

 

Editor: K. Haridasan, Palakkad, Kerala, India.                   Date of publication: 26 March 2018 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # 3867 | Received 29 October 2017 | Final received 15 February 2018 | Finally accepted 01 March 2018

 

Citation: Jeri, L., N.A. Bhat & Y. Kumar (2018). Pternopetalum latipinnulatum (Apiaceae), a new record for the flora of India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(3): 11480–11483; http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3867.10.3.11480-11483

 

Copyright: © Jeri et al. 2018. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: UGC, New Delhi (MANF-2014-15-CHR-ARU-35998).

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the Head, Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, NEHU, Shillong for providing necessary facilities and the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi (MANF-2014-15-CHR-ARU-35998) for the financial support to the first author.  We are also thankful to Head of Office, Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong for allowing us to consult the herbaria and library.

 

 

 

Genus Pternopetalum Franch. belongs to the family Apiaceae, consists of about 32 species and is mainly restricted to East Asia (Wu 1991; Wu et al. 2006).  A recent review of the genus has revealed that there are only 15 authentic species which are distributed throughout China, Japan, Korea, and eastern Himalaya (Wang 2012), with the center of diversity in China (Shu & Sheh 2001).  In India, seven species of the genus have been recorded and all of them are distributed only in northeast India (Hassler 2017). The species in this genus can be recognized by the petals being scrotiform at the base, the umbellules usually with 2–4(–5) flowers, and by the reflexed styles and rays in fructescence (Pu & Phillippe 2005; Wang 2012).

Pternopetalum latipinnulatum (Shan) J.B. Tan & X.J. He was first described from China as a variety of Pternopetalum botrychioides as P. botrychioides var. Latipinnulatum R.H. Shan (Shan 1940). Later, species status was assigned to it, based on detailed taxonomic investigations (Tan et al. 2015). So far Pternopetalum latipinnulatum had been reported only from China (Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi), where it is found growing in grassy slopes under forests, along streamsides at an altitude of about 700–2400 m. This species is reported here for the first time for India from Arunachal Pradesh as an extended distribution.  For scientific authentication, the present paper provides a detailed taxonomic description and microphotographs of diagnostic characteristics of P. latipinnulatum (Fig. 1), and key delimiting characters with its allied species P. botrychioides and P. vulgare (Table 1), which in turn will facilitate its easier field recognition.

 

Materials and Methods

While exploring the flora of Talle Valley Wildlife Sanctuary (27.50–27.660N & 93.95–94.200E), Arunachal Pradesh, some unidentified plant species of family Apiaceae were collected.  The specimens were packed and brought to the laboratory for analysis.  A thorough review of literature (Shan 1940; Mukherjee & Constance 1993; Hajara et al. 1996; Wang 2012; Tan et al. 2015; Pimenov 2017), detailed morphological and consultation of herbarium housed at Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong (ASSAM), Arunachal Pradesh (ARUN) and herbaria of Botany department, North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), revealed that the specimen to be Pternopetalum latipinnulatum (Shan) J.B. Tan & X.J. He.  This species was not reported earlier and is a new addition to the flora of India.  The pressing and mounting of herbarium specimen were done using standard taxonomic procedures (Jain & Rao 1977; Bridson & Forman 1998).  The voucher specimens were deposited at “ASSAM” Herbaria, Botanical Survey of India, Shillong.  The photographs of the diagnostic characteristics were taken under a zoom stereo microscope (ISM-ZS50T, India) fitted with a camera.

 

Taxonomic enumeration

Pternopetalum latipinnulatum (R.H. Shan) J.B. Tan & X.J. He, (2015: 233–244).

Basionym: P. botrychioides var. latipinnulatum Shan. (1940: 158–159).

Type: China, altitude 1,100m (ca. 3600ft), W.P. Fang 2062 (holotype: NAS-00029522; isotype: NAS-00039199).  (Image 2).

Description: Perennial herb, 22–60 cm tall. Rhizome distinct, with leaf-sheath at the base. Stems erect, simple or 1–2 branched, glabrous. Leaves 5–8, mostly basal; basal leaves papyraceous, petiolate, with ca. 15 cm long petioles; blade quadrilateral, 3–6 × 5–8 cm in outline, ternate 2-pinnate; pinnae 3 paired, ultimate leaf segments lanceolate, rhomboidal or ovate, 2–3.5 × 1.2–1.5 cm broad.  Blades strigose along margins, margin incised-serrate, apex acute; terminal ultimate segments rhomboidal to ovate, usually acute at the apex and cuneate (wedge-shaped) at the base.  Cauline leaves 1 in each stem, ternate-pinnate, homomorphic with basal leaves, with brief and broad sheath, membranous. Umbels terminal, usually 1 on each stem; bracts absent; rays 12–35, unequal, 1.3–3.6 cm in flowering, 2.5–4 cm in fruiting; bracteoles 2–3 linear, 0.4–0.8 mm long;  umbellules unequal 2–3 flowered; pedicels ca. 2mm.  Calyx teeth distinct, lanceolate to linear, ca. 0.4mm. Petals white, ca. 1.6 × 0.8 mm, with inflexed tip. Stylopodium conic; styles erect about twice the length of the stylopodium. Fruit green, ovoid or oblong, 2–3 × 0.8–1.5 mm; ribs finely scabrid; Vittae 1 in each furrow, 2 on commissure (Image 1).

Flowering and Fruiting: May–August

Distribution: China (Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi) and India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Specimen examined: 92323 (ASSAM), 18.v.2017, India, Arunachal Pradesh, Lower Subansiri District, Talle Valley WS, Pange, 27.550N & 93.960E, 1,700m, coll. Licha Jeri & N.A. Bhat.

Habitat & Ecology: The plants were found growing in dense humid forests along shady stream sides, at an altitude of about 1,700m in association with other herbaceous species like Fragaria sp. (Rosaceae), Hydrocotyle himalaica P.K. Mukh. (Araliaceae), Impatiens sp. (Balsaminaceae), Begonia sp. (Begoniaceae), ferns Pronephrium sp. (Thelypteridaceae) and bamboos Chimonobambusa sp. (Poaceae).  The upper canopy was dominated by Rhododendron arboreum Sm. (Ericaceae), Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A. DC. (Fagaceae) and Quercus spicata Bonpl. (Fagaceae).  The field exploration revealed that the occurrence of the species is very rare and the population is confined to only a single locality in the surveyed area.

The species is affected by many anthropogenic activities such as unsustainable harvesting of Panax sp. and Paris polyphylla, grazing by livestock (Bos frontalis), which results in habitat destruction in the area.  Although Pternopetalum latipinnulatum was reported in China from different locations no information is known about the size of its populations or whether they face any threat to their existence.

Remarks: Morphological differences amongst the three taxa studied showed that Pternopetalum latipinnulatum is similar to Pternopetalum botrychioides (Dunn) Hand.-Mazz., but is distinguished from the former in having greater height and robustness, and have differences in the leaf characters, stomatal structures, stem character, fruit, and flower size.  Pternopetalum latipinnulatum is also compared with Pternopetalum vulgare (Dunn) Hand.-Mazz. as few of the characters are similar but have stark difference in leaves structure, fruit and flower size.  The morphological differences between P. latipinnulatum, P. botrychioides and P. vulgare are given in Table 1.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Comparison of P. latipinnulatum with its allied species P. botrychioides and P. vulgare

 

Characters

P. latipinnulatum

P. botrychioides

P. vulgare

Texture of leaf

Papyraceous

Membranous

Glabrous or strigose

Basal leaf

4–7, ternate 2-pinnate, quadrilateral

1–4 usually ternate, ovate

Numerous, ternate 3, triangular-ovate

Ultimate leaf segments

Incised-serrate, 2–3.5 × 1.2–1.5 cm, apex acute

Pinnatifid,  0.5–3.5 × 1.5–7 cm, apex caudate

Serrate, undivided, 1.6–6 × 0.6–3.8 cm, apex acute

Cauline leaves

1, homomorphous, smaller and slightly simplified

1–3, ternate 2-pinnate, heterogeneous

1-several, ternate

Inflorescence

Terminal and lateral

Terminal and lateral

Terminal, 1–2 in each

Umbellules

2–3 flowered

2  flowered

2–5 flowered

Pedicels

1.5–2 mm long

0.2–3 mm long

0.3–1.5 mm long

Bracteoles

Linear, 2–3

Lanceolate or linear,1

Sub equal, 1–4

Calyx teeth

Lanceolate to linear

Subulate

Triangular

Fruit

Oblong, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm; ribs scabrid

Broadly ovoid, 2–3 × 1.5–2 mm; ribs scabrid

Globose or ovoid, 3.5–5 × 2–3 mm; ribs denticulate

 

 

 

Keys for identification of Indian Pternopetalum species

 

1a. Plant with basal and cauline leaves........................................................................................................................................... 2

1b. Plant without cauline leaves or rarely one................................................................................................................................ 5

 

2a. Basal and cauline leaves heteromorphic..................................................................................................................... P. tanakae

2b. Basal and cauline leaves homomorphic ................................................................................................................................... 3

 

3a. Leaves pinnate; ultimate segments ovate-triangular............................................................................................. P. subalpinum

3b. Leaves ternate, 2–4-pinnate; ultimate segments lanceolate..................................................................................................... 4

 

4a. Calyx teeth lanceolate-linear; fruit ribs finely scabrid...................................................................................... P. latipinnulatum

4b. Calyx teeth trangular; fruit ribs denticulate.................................................................................................................. P. vulgare

 

5a. Leaves ternate with 3 leaflets, ovate, margins crenate, calyx teeth triangular.......................................................... P. nudicaule

5b. Leaves ternate, 3–4-pinnate, margins finely dissected; calyx teeth subulate........................................................................... 6

 

6a. Pedicel equal; stylopodium oblong, ribs scarbrid............................................................................................... P. arunachalense

6b. Pedicel unequal; stylopodium conical, ribs filiform................................................................................................................... 7

 

7a. Leaves ternate decompound; rays 20-50; umbels terminal.............................................................................................. P. senii

7b. Leaves ternate pinnate, rays 6-8; umbels terminal and lateral................................................................................... P. radiatum

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Bridson, D. & L. Forman (1998). The Herbarium Handbook. 3rd Edition. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 334pp.

Hajara, P.K., D.M. Verma & G.S. Giri (1996). Materials for the Flora of Arunachal Pradesh, Vol. I. Botanical Survey of India, Dehra Dun, 534–544pp.

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Pimenov, M.G. (2017). Updated checklist of Chinese Umbelliferae: nomenclature, synonymy, typification, distribution. Turczaninowia 20(2): 106–239.

Pu, F.T. & L.R. Phillippe (2005). Pternopetalum Franchet, pp. 85–92. In: Wu, Z.Y. & P.H. Raven (eds.). Flora of China, vol. 14. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Shan, R.H. (1940). Studies of Umbelliferae of China. III. (Apioideae: Ammineae-Carinae). Sinensia 11: 137174.

Su, P. & M.L. Sheh (2001). Pollen Photographs and Flora of Umbelliferae in China. Shanghai: Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, 35–58pp.

Tan, J.B., X.G. Ma, L. Zhang & X.J. He (2015). On the identity of Pternopetalum botrychioides (Apiaceae), introducing P. latipinnulatum comb. & stat. nov. Phytotaxa 226(3): 233–244.

Wang, L.S. (2012). A revision of the genus Pternopetalum Franch. (Apiaceae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 50(6): 550–572.

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Wu, C.Y., Z.K. Zhou, H. Sun, P.Z. Li & H. Peng (2006). The Areal-types of Seed Plants and Their Origin and Differentiation. Yunnan Publishing Group, Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, 563pp.