Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 June 2019 | 11(8): 14010–14021

 

 

A comparative study on dragonfly diversity on a plateau and an agro-ecosystem in Goa, India

 

Andrea R.M. D’Souza 1 & Irvathur Krishnananda Pai 2

 

1 Parvatibai Chowgule College of Arts and Science, Gogol-Margao, Goa 403602, India.

2 Department of Zoology, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206, India. 

1 andrearmd@rediffmail.com, 2 ikpai@unigoa.ac.in (corresponding author)

 

 

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to fill the lacuna in the understanding of the diversity of odonates of Goa in general and dragonflies in particular on plateau and paddy fields in coastal villages—agricultural area at Velsao and Taleigao Plateau.  Diversity in plateau ecosystem was higher possibly due to a greater plant and insect diversity on the plateau, in comparison with the monoculture paddy agro-ecosystem.  Highest number of species recorded belonged to the family Libellulidae. Monthly diversity showed correlation with monthly average rainfall and humidity.

 

Keywords: Odonates, Taleigao Plateau, Velsao.

 

 

 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3667.11.8.14010-14021  |  ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:019D45DF-38A7-46CB-BD76-38020240F158

 

Editor: K.A. Subramanian, Zoological Survey of India, Chennai, India.      Date of publication: 26 June 2019 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: #3667 | Received 08 July 2017 | Final received 05 May 2019 | Finally accepted 14 June 2019

 

Citation: D’Souza, A.R.M. & I.K. Pai (2019). A comparative study on dragonfly diversity on a plateau and an agro-ecosystem in Goa, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(8): 14010–14021. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3667.11.8.14010-14021

 

Copyright: D’Souza & Pai 2019. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Self funding.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author details: Andrea Runasia Menezes D’Souza was a post graduate student of Goa University and worked on dragonfly diversity as a part of her MSc dissertation. Presently she is working as Assistant professor in the Department of Zoology at Parvatibai Chowgule College of Arts and Science, Margao, Goa.  Dr. Irvathur Krishnananda Pai is Professor and Head, department of Zoology, Goa University, Goa

 

Author contribution: ARMD was involved in field work, sample collection, data analysis, and manuscript preparation.  IKP was responsible for designing the study, analyzing the data, directing and supervising and preparation of the manuscript.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors sincerely thank Prof. S.K. Shyama, Former Head of Department, Zoology, Goa University, for providing necessary facilities.  We are also thankful to Mr. Parag Rangnekar, for his help in confirming the identification and to Mr. Kiran Gaude and Mr. Avelno D’Costa, Goa University, for their help in statistical analyses.

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Initial work on odonates in the state of Goa was carried out by Prasad (1995), followed by Rangnekar et al. (2010, 2014), and Subramanian et al. (2013), indicating the diversity to be 87 species.  Considerable amount of research has been carried out in the Western Ghats and the neighboring state of Maharashtra (Subramanian et al. 2011; Kulkarni & Subramanian 2013; Muthukumaravel et al. 2015; Tiple & Koparde 2015).  Despite this, there are several lacunae in understanding the diversity of odonates in general and dragonflies in particular.  Hence, this attempt is to study diversity, distribution patterns, specific species abundance and status of dragonflies in plateau and paddy field areas at Taleigao Plateau and paddy fields in a coastal village of Goa, in Velsao.  In the present work we have analyzed the odonates from Goa in general and plateau and agro-ecosystem in particular, which has not been attempted previously.

 

 

Materials and Methods

 

Study sites

The areas chosen for the study include Velsao (15.3540N & 73.8910E, 11m) (Image 1), which is a coastal village and the Taleigao Plateau (15.4570N & 73.8340E, 50m) (Image 2) which is a lateritic region.

Velsao comprises of several paddy field ponds and streams; four sites were chosen (Image 3a–d) in the village.  On the other hand, Taleigao Plateau is a lateritic region comprising several temporary monsoon water pools.  Four sites (Image 4a–d) were chosen on Taleigao Plateau, representing the lateritic water pools.

At the plateau study site, the soil is mostly lateritic with vegetation belonging to Asclepiadaceae, Acanthaceae, Leguminosae Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae families.  Paddy fields are composed of loamy-clay mostly with water logging with vegetation comprising of Tridax sp., Gliricidia spp., Justicia spp.,  and Centella spp. seen around the paddy field bunds.

 

Weather parameters

Table 1 provides meteorological data of the sites under study.  The monthly average temperature ranged between 26.86oC to 27.64oC; wind speed from 2.13– 6.84 km/h; sunshine was between 97.3–290.1 hr/month; relative humidity was between 78.2–93.7 % and rainfall was from 1–449.5 mm/ month (Fig. 1).

 

 

Methods

 

The study was conducted from August 2016 to February 2017.  The sampling is done by monthly direct counts, by following all out opportunistic surveys, at the selected sites from 08.30 to 12.00 hr, which coincides with the insect’s active period.  Species observed were recorded and photographed, using Nikon Coolpix L840 and Nikon Coolpix S6300 cameras.  A monthly record of species at the sites was maintained.  Species which could not be identified in the field were collected using insect collecting net and maintained by dry preservation (Kapoor 2008) and identified using standard literature such as Fraser (1939), Subramanian (2009) and Nair (2011).

 

Statistical analysis

From the data obtained of dragonflies species at the sites diversity indices such as shannon diversity index, evenness index, species richness index and species abundance, were calculated using PAST software and MS-Excel. Correlation between the diversity indices and weather parameters was calculated using correlation coefficient (Fig. 2).

 

 

Results

  

The list of dragonflies encountered at the study sites is given in Table 2.  During the study period, a combined total of 28 species of dragonflies belonging to 18 genera and three families were encountered.

Of the above, 24 species belonging to 16 genera and three families were sighted in the plateau ecosystem; while 16 species belonging to 12 genera and three families were sighted in the agro-ecosystem.  There were 12 species of dragonflies belonging to 12 genera that were common to both the ecosystems (Fig. 3).

 

a. Agro-ecosystem

A total of 16 species belonging to 12 genera and three families were sighted in the agro-ecosystem.  Most number of species noted during post monsoon (October–December) were 13, monsoon (August, September) were 12, and winter (January and February) were nine.  Species diversity (H’) was found to be 1.944 ± 0.158, species evenness (J’) was 0.782 ± 0.066, and species richness (SR) recorded was 2.11 ± 0.347 (Table 3).

 

b. Plateau ecosystem 

A total of 24 species belonging to 16 genera and three families were sighted in the plateau ecosystem.  Most species were noted in post monsoon (17), followed by monsoon (14) and winter (7).

Species diversity (H’) was 1.762 ± 0.405, species evenness (J’) 0.674 ± 0.111, and species richness (SR) 2.172 ± 0.603 (Table 3).

 

Weather parameters vs. dragonflies

The monthly diversity of dragonfly species recorded was correlated with the different weather parameters like monthly average rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed, sunshine hours and temperature (Table 1).  Monthly diversity of dragonflies showed a significant positive correlation with the monthly average rainfall in the agro-ecosystem (cr cf = 0.765, p <0.05) and relative humidity in both the ecosystems (agro-ecosystem- cr cf = 0.759, p <0.05 and plateau ecosystem- cr cf = 0.796, p <0.05) and a low correlation with temperature and wind speed.  Further, it was also found to be strongly negatively correlated with the monthly sunshine hours (agro-ecosystem- cr cf = -0.758, p <0.05 and plateau ecosystem- cr cf = -0.731, p= 0.06).

 

 

Discussion

 

A combined total of 28 species of dragonflies recorded at both sites makes about 59.5% of the total dragonflies recorded in the state so far (Rangnekar 2014).

The highest diversity recorded belonged to family Libellulidae (23) followed by Aeshnidae (3) (in plateau ecosystem) and Gomphidae (1).  All over the world, species belonging to family Libellulidae dominate unshaded habitats with stagnant water, include species with great migratory ability and distributions covering more than one continent including isolated islands (Kalkman et al 2008).

Diversity in plateau ecosystem was more with 24 species while paddy field ecosystem displayed 16 species. This could possibly be due to a greater plant and insect diversity on the plateau, as opposed to the monoculture paddy agro-ecosystem, which supports a lesser number of plant species and thus fewer insect species that are the prey base for dragonflies.  Aquatic bodies in paddy fields were mostly covered by invasive weed like Salvinia, which hampers the growth of other native aquatic plant and animal diversity (Balzan 2012).

In the present study, seasonal variation in dragonfly species was also observed. Highest number of species and individuals were recorded during post monsoon, followed by monsoon and least in winter in both the ecosystems.  Species diversity (H’) was highest in monsoon followed by post monsoon and winter.  Similar studies were carried out by Muthukumaravel et al. (2015).  This may be attributed to drying up of the habitats which results in reduction in food resources post monsoon.

Monthly diversity of dragonflies showed a significant positive correlation with the monthly average rainfall in the agroecosystem and relative humidity in both the ecosystems.  Similar observations were reported by Kalita et al. (2015) and Muthukumaravel et al. (2015).  Weather plays an important role in the survival and activity patterns of adult odonates (Aguilar 2008).  These environmental factors, along with vegetation directly affect diversity and distribution of food resources (Morais et al. 1999).  The influence of rainfall is seen on density and distribution of vegetation, which leads to increase in abundance of herbivorous insects (prey for dragonflies). 

It was observed that the species diversity (Fig. 2)  in both ecosystems continue to be fairly similar in months August to October, however declined in January and February in the plateau ecosystem, along with a decline in the species richness,  which can be attributed to the drying up of temporary water bodies following the monsoon season in the plateau ecosystem. Highest number of species was recorded in the month of October on the plateau ecosystem. Many of the species have their flight period during this period and a higher diversity of odonates could be attributed to this (Kulkarni & Subramanian 2013). 

Neurothemis tullia shows the highest species abundance, followed by Diplacodes trivialis and Rhodothemis rufa in the paddy field ecosystem and Pantala flavescens in the plateau ecosystem followed by Diplacodes trivialis. Similar studies at agricultural areas were also reported by Kulkarni & Subramanian (2013).

Dragonflies are important bio-indicator species (Stewart 1998; Nair 2011). Presence of species like Brachythemis contaminata, which is known as a dragonfly of polluted waters (Subramanian 2009), was recorded at some of the sites in the plateau ecosystem, may indicate deterioration of the aquatic body. The presence of Neurothemis fulvia, Neurothemis tullia, Bradinopyga geminata and Trithemis festiva at the sites can indicate superior quality water and species Brachythemis contaminata, Orthetrum chrysis, and Orthetrum sabina which are common species at the sites could possible indicate lower water quality.

Most of the species recorded belong to the Least Concern category of the IUCN Red List, while one species Indothemis carnatica is Near Threatened.

 

Table 1. Weather profile of Goa during the study period (August 2016 to February 2017).

 

 

Month

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Temperature (C°)

27.64

27.3

27.21

27.4

27.11

26.86

27.6

Wind speed (km/hr)

6.84

4.4

3.29

3.2

3.13

3.35

3.96

Sunshine hours

97.3

136

204.2

268.9

273.4

290.1

271.7

Relative humidity

91.5

93.7

92.52

78.2

78.48

79.74

86.14

Rainfall (mm)

449.5

242.9

157.3

1

-

  -

-

 

 

(Source: Anonymous, Goa Meteorological Department, Panaji, Goa)

 

 

Table 2. Dragonfly species observed at the study sites.

Family

Genera

Common name

Scientific name

Plateau

Paddy field

Gomphidae

Ictinogomphus

Common Clubtail

Ictinogomphus rapax Rambur, 1842

+

+

Aeshnidae

Anax

Blue-tailed Green Darter

Anax guttatus Burmeister, 1839

+

-

 

Gynacantha

Parakeet Darter

Gynacantha bayadera Selys, 1854

-

+

 

Gynacantha

Brown Darter

Gynacantha dravida Lieftinck, 1960

+

-

Libellulidae

Acisoma

Trumpet Tail

Acisoma panorpoides Rambur, 1842

-

+

 

Brachythemis

Ditch Jewel

Brachythemis contaminata Fabricius, 1793

+

-

 

Bradinopyga

Granite Ghost

Bradinopyga geminata Rambur, 1842

+

+

 

Cratilla

Emerald Banded Skimmer

Cratilla lineata Foerster,1903

+

-

 

Crocothemis

Ruddy Marsh Skimmer

Crocothemis servilia Drury, 1770

+

+

 

Diplacodes

Ground Skimmer

Diplacodes trivialis Rambur,1842

+

+

 

Indothemis

Blue Ground Skimmer

Indothemis carnatica Fabricius, 1798

+

-

 

Lathrecista

Asiatic Blood Tail

Lathrecista asiatica Fabricius, 1798

+

+

 

Neurothemis

Fulvous Forest Skimmer

Neurothemis fulvia Drury, 1773

-

+

 

Neurothemis

Pied Paddy skimmer

Neurothemis tullia Drury, 1773

+

+

 

Orthetrum

Brown-backed Red Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum chrysis Selys, 1891

+

+

 

Orthetrum

Tricoloured Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum luzonicum Brauer, 1868

+

-

 

Orthetrum

Crimson-tailed Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum pruinosum Rambur, 1842

+

+

 

Orthetrum

Green Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum sabina Drury, 1770

+

+

 

Orthetrum

Small Skimmer 

Orthetrum taeniolatum Schneider, 1845

+

-

 

Pantala

Wandering glider

Pantala flavescens Fabricius, 1798

+

+

 

Rhodothemis

Rufous Marsh Glider

Rhodothemis rufa Rambur, 1842

+

+

 

Rhodothemis

Common Picturewing

Rhyothemis variegate Linnaeus, 1763

+

+

 

Tholymis

Coral-tailed Cloud Wing

Tholymis tillarga Fabricius, 1798

-

+

 

Tramea

Red  Marsh Trotter

Tramea basilaris Kirby, 1889

+

-

 

Tramea

Black Marsh Trotter

Tramea limbate Rambur, 1842

+

-

 

Trithemis

Crimson Marsh Glider

Trithemis aurora Burmeister, 1839

+

-

 

Trithemis

Black Stream Glider

Trithemis festiva Rambur, 1842

+

-

 

Trithemis

Long-legged Marsh Glider

Trithemis pallidinervis Kirby, 1889

+

-

 

 

Table 3. Family-wise percentage composition of dragonflies in ecosystems under study.

 

 

Families

Number of species

Agro-ecosystem

Plateau ecosystem

1

Gomphidae

1

1

2

Aeshnidae

1

2

3

Libellulidae

14

21

 

 

Table 4. General composition of dragonfly community and species indices in paddy field and plateau ecosystem.

 

 

Agro-ecosystem

Plateau ecosystem

Affiliations

Total no. of individuals recorded

308

402

Total no. of species

16

24

Total no. of genera

12

16

Total no. of families

3

3

Species indices

Species diversity (H’)

1.944 ± 0.158

1.762 ± 0.405

Species evenness (J’)

0.782 ± 0.066

0.674 ± 0.111

Species richness (SR)

2.113 ± 0.347

2.172 ± 0.603

 

 

Table 5. Seasonal variations in species indices of dragonflies in (a) agro-ecosystem and (b) plateau.

a) Agro-ecosystem

Species indices

Monsoon

Post-monsoon

Winter

Species diversity (H')

2.145

2.138

1.801

Species evenness (J')

0.711

0.652

0.673

Species richness (SR)

2.373

2.435

1.903

 

(a1) Abundance and species richness at the agro-ecosystem

Family

Common name

Scientific name

Monsoon

Post-monsoon

Winter

Gomphidae

Common Clubtail

Ictinogomphus rapax Rambur, 1842

4

1

1

Aeshnidae

Blue-tailed Green Darter

Anax guttatus Burmeister, 1839

-

-

-

 

Parakeet Darter

Gynacantha bayadera Selys, 1854

-

-

-

 

Brown Darter

Gynacantha dravida Lieftinck,1960

-

1

-

Libellulidae

Trumpet Tail

Acisoma panorpoides Rambur, 1842

4

7

-

 

Ditch Jewel

Brachythemis contaminata Fabricius, 1793

-

-

-

 

Granite Ghost

Bradinopyga geminata Rambur, 1842

2

4

-

 

Emerald Banded Skimmer

Cratilla lineata Foerster,1903

-

-

-

 

Ruddy Marsh Skimmer

Crocothemis servilia Drury, 1770

-

-

-

 

Ground Skimmer

Diplacodes trivialis Rambur,1842

11

27

17

 

Blue Ground Skimmer

Indothemis carnatica Fabricius, 1798

-

-

-

 

Asiatic Blood Tail

Lathrecista asiatica Fabricius, 1798

1

1

1

 

Fulvous Forest Skimmer

Neurothemis fulvia Drury, 1773

-

-

1

 

Pied Paddy Skimmer

Neurothemis tullia Drury, 1773

30

28

20

 

Brown-backed Red Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum chrysis Selys, 1891

-

4

-

 

Blue Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum glaucum Brauer, 1865

-

-

-

 

Tricoloured Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum luzonicum Brauer, 1868

-

-

-

 

Crimson-tailed Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum pruinosum  Rambur, 1842

5

9

4

 

Green Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum sabina  Drury, 1770

9

17

6

 

Small Skimmer 

Orthetrum taeniolatum Schneider, 1845

-

-

-

 

Wandering Glider

Pantala flavescens Fabricius, 1798

 

11

22

10

 

Rufous Marsh Glider

Rhodothemis rufa Rambur, 1842

14

15

7

 

Common Picturewing

Rhyothemis variegata Linnaeus, 1763

2

2

-

 

Coral-tailed Cloud Wing

Tholymis tillarga Fabricius, 1798

10

-

-

 

Red Marsh Trotter

Tramea basilaris Kirby,1889

-

-

-

 

Black Marsh Trotter

Tramea limbata Rambur,1842

-

-

-

 

Black Stream Glider

Trithemis festiva Rambur, 1842

-

-

-

 

Long-legged Marsh Glider

Trithemis pallidinervis Kirby, 1889

-

-

-

 

(b) Plateau ecosystem

Species indices

Monsoon

Post-monsoon

Winter

Species diversity (H')

2.203

2.077

1.289

Species evenness (J')

0.646

0.469

0.578

Species richness (SR)

2.49

3.056

1.764

 

(b1) Abundance and species richness at the Plateau ecosystem

Family

Common name

Scientific name

Monsoon

Post-monsoon

Winter

Gomphidae

Common Clubtail

Ictinogomphus rapax Rambur, 1842

-

3

-

Aeshnidae

Blue-tailed Green Darter

Anax guttatus Burmeister, 1839

-

1

-

 

Parakeet Darter

Gynacantha bayadera Selys,1854

-

-

-

 

Brown Darter

Gynacantha dravida Lieftinck,1960

-

-

-

Libellulidae

Trumpet Tail

Acisoma panorpoides Rambur, 1842

-

-

-

 

Ditch Jewel

Brachythemis contaminata Fabricius, 1793

-

1

-

 

Granite Ghost

Bradinopyga geminata Rambur, 1842

9

10

3

 

Emerald Banded Skimmer

Cratilla lineata Foerster, 1903

-

-

1

 

Ruddy Marsh Skimmer

Crocothemis servilia Drury, 1770

10

6

1

 

Ground Skimmer

Diplacodes trivialis Rambur, 1842

19

39

18

 

Blue Ground Skimmer

Indothemis carnatica Fabricius, 1798

17

10

-

 

Asiatic Blood Tail

Lathrecista asiatica Fabricius, 1798

-

1

-

 

Fulvous Forest Skimmer

Neurothemis fulvia Drury, 1773

-

-

-

 

Pied Paddy skimmer

Neurothemis tullia Drury, 1773

3

1

-

 

Brown-backed Red Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum chrysis Selys, 1891

-

-

-

 

Blue Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum glaucum Brauer, 1865

-

1

-

 

Tricoloured Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum luzonicum Brauer, 1868

-

-

-

 

Crimson-tailed Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum pruinosum  Rambur, 1842

2

-

-

 

Green Marsh Hawk

Orthetrum sabina  Drury, 1770

18

17

 

 

Small Skimmer 

Orthetrum taeniolatum Schneider, 1845

 

 

1

 

Wandering Glider

Pantala flavescens Fabricius, 1798

59

67

5

 

Rufous Marsh Glider

Rhodothemis rufa Rambur, 1842

3

6

 

 

Common Picturewing

Rhyothemis variegata Linnaeus, 1763

14

2

1

 

Coral-tailed Cloud Wing

Tholymis tillarga Fabricius, 1798

-

-

-

 

Red  Marsh Trotter

Tramea basilaris Kirby, 1889

7

4

-

 

Black Marsh Trotter

Tramea limbata Rambur, 1842

18

12

-

 

Black Stream Glider

Trithemis festiva Rambur, 1842

5

7

-

 

Long-legged Marsh Glider

Trithemis pallidinervis Kirby, 1889

1

-

-

 

 

Table 6. Species abundance from most abundant to least abundant.

 

Scientific name

Agro-ecosystem

Scientific name

Plateau ecosystem

Neurothemis tullia Drury, 1773

25.324

Pantala flavescens Fabricius, 1798

32.506

Diplacodes trivialis Rambur, 1842

17.857

Diplacodes trivialis Rambur,1842

18.858

Pantala flavescens Fabricius, 1798

13.961

Orthetrum sabina Drury, 1770

8.684

Rhodothemis rufa Rambur, 1842

11.688

Tramea limbata Rambur,1842

7.444

Orthetrum sabina  Drury, 1770

10.389

Indothemis carnatica Fabricius, 1798

6.699

Orthetrum pruinosum  Rambur, 1842

5.8441

Bradinopyga geminata Rambur, 1842

5.459

Acisoma panorpoides Rambur, 1842

3.5714

Crocothemis servilia Drury, 1770

4.218

Tholymis tillarga Fabricius, 1798

3.246

Rhyothemis variegata Linnaeus, 1763

4.218

Ictinogomphus rapax Rambur, 1842

1.948

Trithemis festiva Rambur, 1842

2.977

Bradinopyga geminata Rambur, 1842

1.948

Tramea basilaris Kirby,1889

2.729

Orthetrum chrysis Selys, 1891

1.298

Rhodothemis rufa Rambur, 1842

2.233

Rhyothemis variegata Linnaeus, 1763

1.298

Neurothemis tullia Drury, 1773

0.992

Lathrecista asiatica Fabricius, 1798

0.974

Ictinogomphus rapax Rambur, 1842

0.744

Gynacantha bayadera Selys, 1854

0.324

Orthetrum pruinosum Rambur, 1842

0.496

Neurothemis fulvia Drury, 1773

0.324

Anax guttatus Burmeister, 1839

0.248

Anax guttatus Burmeister, 1839

0

Brachythemis contaminata Fabricius, 1793

0.248

Gynacantha dravida Lieftinck, 1960

0

Cratilla lineata Foerster,1903

0.248

Brachythemis contaminata Fabricius, 1793

0

Lathrecista asiatica Fabricius, 1798

0.248

Cratilla lineata Foerster, 1903

0

Orthetrum glaucum Brauer, 1865

0.248

Crocothemis servilia Drury, 1770

0

Orthetrum taeniolatum Schneider, 1845

0.248

Indothemis carnatica Fabricius, 1798

0

Trithemis pallidinervis Kirby, 1889

0.248

Orthetrum glaucum Brauer, 1865

0

Gynacantha bayadera Selys,1854

0

Orthetrum luzonicum Brauer, 1868

0

Gynacantha dravida Lieftinck,1960

0

Orthetrum taeniolatum Schneider, 1845

0

Acisoma panorpoides Rambur, 1842

0

Tramea basilaris Kirby, 1889

0

Neurothemis fulvia Drury, 1773

0

Tramea limbata Rambur, 1842

0

Orthetrum chrysis Selys, 1891

0

Trithemis festiva Rambur, 1842

0

Orthetrum luzonicum Brauer, 1868

0

Trithemis pallidinervis Kirby, 1889

0

Tholymis tillarga Fabricius, 1798

0

 

 

For images & figures – click here

 

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