Journal of Threatened Taxa | | 26 January 2019 | 11(1): 13171–13172




Sabit Hasan 1, Tanvir Ahmed& Hassan Al-Razi 3


1,2 Faculty of Life and Earth Science, Department of Zoology, Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh.

3 Bangladesh Slow Loris Research and Conservation Project, 531/2, Shahidbag Mosque Road, Shajahanpur, Dhaka 1217, Bangladesh.

1, 2,

3 (corresponding author)




Editor: Hem Sagar Baral, Charles Sturt University, New South Wales, Australia.           Date of publication: 26 January 2019 (online & print)


Manuscript details: #3421 | Received 23 March 2017 | Final received 03 November 2018 | Finally accepted 21 December 2018


Citation: Hasan, S., T. Ahmed & H. Al-Razi (2019). Breeding record of Common Hoopoe Upupa epops (Aves: Upupidae) at Satchari National Park in northeastern Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa 11(1): 13171–13172;


Copyright: Hasan et al. 2019. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.


Funding: UAE University.


Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.


Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to Mr. Enam Ul Haque, founder of Bangladesh Bird Club, for supplying books and to Dr. Sabir Bin Muzaffar of UAE University for funding the Bangladesh Slow Loris Research and Conservation Project.  We are also thankful to the Bangladesh Forest Department and department of Zoology, Jagannath University, Dhaka, for the support.


Bangladesh has a rich biological heritage owing to its location in the subtropical belt at the confluence of two major biotic subregions (Indo-Himalaya and Indo-Chinese) of the Oriental region (Khan 2008; Feeroz 2014).  A total of 1,619 species were recorded were recorded from the country.  With 566 evaluated species, birds constitute the most species-rich group in Bangladesh (IUCN Bangladesh 2015).  Of this group, 383 are residents, 218 winter visitors, 11 summer visitors, and 94 vagrants.  Common Hoopoe Upupa epops of Upupidae family is thought to be a local breeding resident having been recorded throughout the year (Harvey 1990) but without any confirmation of breeding in the country.  The species is distributed widely in Europe, Asia, northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Madagascar (Kristin 2001).  Here we document the first nesting of Common Hoopoe in Bangladesh.


On 6 May 2016 at 10:00hr, during habitat data collection of Bengal Slow Loris Nycticebus bengalensis at Satchari National Park (SNP) (24.1220N & 91.4430E) in northeastern Bangladesh, we found a Common Hoopoe carrying a food item (Image 1).  Another individual too was seen carrying food in the same direction.  Following that direction for approximately 45min, we discovered their probable destination.  After a further 40min of observation, a nest was found with at least one chick (Image 2).  We tried to determine the number of chicks through binoculars but failed due to the height of the nest cavity.  The chick(s) seen was thought to be 20–30 days old and stuck its head out of the nest and called continuously.  Parents visited separately with food (Image 3).  Most food items appeared to be small invertebrates but could not be identified to the species level, although a few seemed to be spiders and also some sort of larva.


The Common Hoopoe pair has built its nest in a large Terminalia chebula tree at the top of a hillock of 51m elevation.  The nest was in a partly hidden cavity with a narrow entrance and was about 30m above the ground, hidden by dense undergrowth.  The nest location high in the canopy in a less disturbed patch of forest appeared a good choice for potential breeding success.


The nest was typical – Hoopoes nest in trees having cavities with narrow entrances (Perrins & Harrison 1979; Cramp 1985) but do not excavate their own nest cavities (Perrins & Harrison 1979).  We presume that this nest was in an old woodpecker hole.  The nesting area is comparatively less logged and disturbed by visitors, although in the last few years the area was converted to lemon gardens by the local communities.  Many of the large trees used by birds such as Oriental Pied Hornbill for nesting were cut down illegally.  Habitat destruction is a threat for birds and other threatened animals in SNP.  As far as the authors’ knowledge, this is the first description of the Common Hoopoe nesting in Bangladesh that confirms its status as a breeding resident.  We, however, found no other Hoopoe nests in SNP in our two years of faunal surveys in the forest.



Cramp, S. (ed.) (1985). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. IV: Terns to Woodpeckers. Oxford University Press, UK, 970pp.

Feeroz, M.M. (ed.) (2014). Wildlife Diversity in Bangladesh: 40 Years of Research and Conservation. The Festschrift on the 50th Anniversary of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Dhaka, 182pp.

Harvey, W.G. (1990). Birds in Bangladesh. University Press Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh, 188pp.

IUCN Bangladesh (2015). Red List of Bangladesh: A Brief on Assessment Result 2015. IUCN, Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, 24pp.

Khan, M.M.H. (2008). Protected Areas of Bangladesh: A Guide to Wildlife. Nishorgo Support Program, Bangladesh Forest Department, Dhaka, 304pp.

Kristin, A. (2001). Family Upupidae (Hoopoes), pp. 396–411. In: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott & J. Sargatal (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World: Vol. 6. Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, 589pp.

Perrins, C. & C.J.O. Harrison (eds.) (1979). Birds: Their Life, Their Ways, Their World.The Reader’s Digest Association, Later Printing Edition, Pleasantville, New York, 260pp.