Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 August 2018 | 10(9): 12247–12269

 

 

 

Angiosperm diversity of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh: a checklist

 

Arun Kumar Kushwaha 1, Lalit Mohan Tewari 2 & Lal Babu Chaudhary 3

 

1,3 Plant Diversity, Systematics and Herbarium Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226001, India

2 Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263002, India

1 akushwaha072@gmail.com, 2 l_tewari@redeffmail.com, 3 dr_lbchaudhary@rediffmail.com (corresponding author)

 

 

 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3283.10.9.12247-12269

 

Editor: Aparna Watve, Pune, India.    Date of publication: 26 August 2018 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # 3283 | Received 03 January 2017 | Final received 25 July 2018 | Finally accepted 30 July 2018

 

Citation: Kushwaha, A.K., L.M. Tewari & L.B. Chaudhary (2018). Angiosperm diversity of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh: a checklist. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(9): 12247–12269; https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3283.10.9.12247-12269

 

Copyright: © Kushwaha et al. 2018. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: DST, Govt. of India, New Delhi.

 

Competing interests: The author declares no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: The Director, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India is highly acknowledged for providing facilities. The authors are also thankful to DST, Govt. of India, New Delhi for the financial support. The thanks are also due to the in-charge of herbaria mentioned in the work for granting permission for herbarium consultation. The PCCF (Wildlife), Uttar Pradesh and forest field staffs are also acknowledged for their hospitality and assistance provided during the field work.

 

 

 

Abstract: The present study provides a taxonomic account of the angiosperms of Sonbhadra District in Uttar Pradesh.  The district, which comes under the Vindhyan region of Uttar Pradesh, is one of the richest areas in the state as far as plant diversity is concerned.  It is spread over about 6788km² of geographical area, which constitutes about 36% forest cover on highly undulated land.  The extensive survey of the area conducted during 2011-–2016, critical examination of previous collections housed at various herbaria, and review of published literature have resulted in a total of 705 species belonging to 459 genera under 110 families.  Out of these, 541 species (76.73%) under 354 genera (77.12%) and 89 families (80.90%) belong to dicots, and 164 species (23.26%) under 105 genera (23.26%) and 21 families (19.09%) to monocots.  The present enumeration of the species also includes about 78 species cultivated in the area for various purposes.  Fabaceae (110 spp.) comprises of the maximum number of species, followed by Poaceae (89 spp.), Asteraceae (38 spp.), Cyperaceae (33 spp.), and Malvaceae (33 spp.).  Some of the largest genera in the area are Cyperus (14 spp.), Ipomoea (9 spp.), Solanum (9 spp.), Ficus (9 spp.), Crotalaria (7 spp.), Desmodium (7 spp.), Bauhinia (6 spp.), Hibiscus (6 spp.), Fimbristylis (6 spp.), Acacia (5 spp. ), etc.  The entire forest is chiefly dominated by trees such as Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd., Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr., Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., Hardwickia binata Roxb., and Shorea robusta Gaertn.

 

Keywords: Floristic diversity, Vindhyan region, Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh.

 

 

 

 

The floristic account provides lots of information of plant wealth of an area, which may be beneficial for university students, botanists, researchers, NGOs, naturalists, environmental engineers, forest managers, conservation biologists, and policy makers.  Knowledge of floristic composition and structure of forest is also useful in identifying ecologically and economically important plants, analysing their diversities, and protecting threatened plants (Addo-Fordjour et al. 2009).  In the past, many important floristic accounts have been published for several states, districts, and biogeographic regions of India and abroad.  In addition to general flora of Uttar Pradesh (Duthie 1903–1929; Kanjilal 1966; Rau 1969; Uniyal et al. 1999; Chaudhary et al. 2016), several works related to different districts, national parks, and sanctuaries have also been produced by many (Kanjilal 1933; Srivastava 1938; Singh 1969; Srivastava 1976; Sharma & Pandey 1984; Sharma & Dhakre 1995; Verma & Ranjan 1995; Singh 1997; Saini 2005; Singh & Khanuja 2006; Kumar et al. 2015).  The floristic account of Sonbhadra District of Uttar Pradesh, however, is still unexplored in spite of its rich diversity. The production of state flora will be easier, once all the district floras are worked out systematically.  Hence, there is a need for proper inventory and documentation of all plants available in Sonbhadra District with their up to date taxonomic information.  Since the area is very rich in minerals and forest resources, many industries and factories of different kinds have been set up here.  Therefore, the present study will also be very important for a comparative study of the plants of the area in future and also to examine the effects of industrial pollutants on them.

Although the district has not been thoroughly inventoried earlier, the reference on the plants of the study area is available in Bhattacharyya (1963, 1964) and Srivastava (1955) wherein the plants of erstwhile Mirzapur District have been dealt with.  In these studies, about 460 species have been listed including about 130 species from the study area.  In addition, a few scattered works chiefly pertaining to ethnobotanical and medicinal plants have been carried out in the area (Singh et al. 2002; Chaudhary 2010; Singh et al. 2010; Singh et al. 2012; Singh & Dubey 2012; Mishra et al. 2012).  Recently, Kushwaha et al. (2016 a, b) have thoroughly studied the family Cucurbitaceae of the area and have also presented a preliminary overview of angiospermic plants.  Hence, the present work is the first study of its kind from the study area after its recognition as a district.

 

Materials and Methods

In this study, 12 field tours in different seasons were conducted between 2011–2016 to survey the area.  The plant materials were collected either in flowering or fruiting or in both stages with detailed information such as habit, habitat, colour of flowers and fruits, shape and size of trees, nature of bark of trees, GPS information, conservation status, etc.  The herbarium specimens were prepared following the standard procedure outlined by Lawrence (1951) and Jain & Rao (1977).  The identification of species was done with the help of different floras and important taxonomic works (Hooker 1872–1897; Duthie 1903–1929; Brandis 1906; Singh 1997) and also after matching with the authentic specimens housed at various Indian herbaria such as Botanical Survey of India, Allahabad (BSA), Botanical Survey of India, Dehra Dun (BSD), Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata (CAL), Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun (DD), and National Botanical Research Institure, Lucknow (LWG).  All specimens collected in the present study have been deposited at LWG for future records.  In the present treatment, each species was furnished with the correct recent name following websites such as  The International Plant Names Index (IPNI), Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS), The Plantlist, Wikipedia, and Tropicos, along with habit, distribution  and reference to voucher specimens.  The families, genera, and species within the genus have been arranged alphabetically in the list.  All photographs included in the study have been take by first author (AKK).

 

Study Area

Uttar Pradesh, one of the largest states of India with an area of about 240,928km2, has been divided into 75 districts.  Its forest cover, however, is about 16,583km2, which is only 6.88% of its total geographical area (Forest Survey of India, 2011).  In the present study, Sonbhadra District was selected for the floristic study to know the plant wealth of the area (Fig. 1; Image 1).  Sonbhadra District was carved out from the district Mirzapur on 4 March 1989.  It is the second largest district of the state comprising of about 6788km² geographical area.  It lies between 23° 51′54″ N–24° 46′18″ N  and  82° 40′24″ E–83°33′15″ E at elevations ranging from 315–485 m.  The temperature of the area varies from 32°C–42°C in the summer and 2°C–15°C in the winter.  This district is situated in the extreme southeast of the state, and is bounded by Mirzapur District in the northwest, Chandauli District in the north, Kaimur and Rohtas districts of Bihar in the northeast, Garhwa District of Jharkhand State in the east, Koriya and Surguja districts of Chhattisgarh State in the south, and Singrauli District of Madhya Pradesh in the west.  The district occupies 36.79% (i.e., 3,782.86km²) forest cover of the total  geographical area of the state.  The topography of the area is uneven due to the presence of hillocks.  The area that comes under the Vindhyan plateau of the state has tropical dry deciduous forest (Singh & Dubey 2012).

 

Results and Discussion

The whole of the area is covered with natural scrubby jungle and thick forests.  Almost the entire plateau exhibits a uniform horizontal stratification of rocks.  The top of the plateau is  unsuitable for the growth of broad-leaved plants and, is represented by uniform scrubby dry vegetation.  The broad-leaved plants are generally seen on the slopes of the plateau.  Overall, the entire forest is mixed dry deciduous, but evergreen trees are frequently seen in ravines.  The data collected from field and herbarium studies reveal that the entire area contains about 705 species under 459 genera and 110 families including 78 cultivated ones that have been planted in the area for different purposes (Table 1; Images 2–3).  Out of these, 541 species (76.73%) under 354 genera (77.12%) and 89 families (80.90%) belong to dicots and 164 species (23.26%) under 105 genera (22.87%) and 21 families (19.09%) to monocots (Fig. 2).   The family Fabaceae has the maximum number of species (52 Genera, 110 species), followed by Poaceae (63 Genera, 89 species), Asteraceae (32 Genera, 38 species), Malvaceae (15 Genera, 33 species), Cyperaceae (9 Genera, 33 species), Cucurbitaceae (11 Genera, 20 species), Acanthaceae (11 Genera, 17 species), Convolvulaceae (8 Genera, 17 species), Solanaceae (5 Genera, 16 species), and Rubiaceae (13 Genera, 15 species) (Fig. 3).  Some of the dominant genera in the forest are Cyperus (14 spp.), Ipomoea (9 spp.), Solanum (9 spp.), Ficus (9 spp.), Crotalaria (7 spp.), Desmodium (7 spp.), Bauhinia (6 spp.), Hibiscus (6 spp.), Fimbristylis (6 spp.), Acacia (5 spp.), etc.   Among all plants, 443 species (62.70%) are herbs, 163 species (23.12%) are trees, 75 species (10.21 %) are shrubs, and 29 species (3.97 %) are climbers (Fig. 4).

According to a revised classification of forest type in India by Champion & Seth (1968), the forest type of Sonbhadra District is tropical dry deciduous.  The whole area of the district has an interesting diversity of flora and vegetation due to variable plains, slopes, hills, and climate, represented by dry deciduous vegetation, natural scrub jungle, patches of grasses, and thick forest.  The whole area of the district is covered with rich plant diversity with trees at the top layer, shrubs at the middle layer, and herbs, climbers, and twiners at the ground level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1. List of the plants of Sonbhadra District.

 

Family

Taxa

Growth form

Remarks

Collection reference

 

DICOT

 

 

 

Acanthaceae

Adhatoda zeylanica Medik.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 304140 (LWG)

 

Andrographis echioides (L.) Nees

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12006 (BSA)

 

Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304101 (LWG)

 

Barleria cristata L.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 254593 (LWG)

 

Barleria prionitis L.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 254285 (LWG)

 

Dipteracanthus prostratus (Poir.) Nees

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12221 (BSA)

 

Elytraria acaulis (L.f.) Lindau 

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304137 (LWG)

 

Hemigraphis hirta (Vahl) T.Anderson

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304195 (LWG)

 

Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 9676 ( BSA)

 

Hygrophila erecta (Burm.f.) Hochr.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 2059 (BSA)

 

Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T.Anderson

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 13417 (BSA)

 

Justicia diffusa Willd.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 20504 (BSA)

 

Justicia prostrata Schltdl. ex Nees

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 8451 (BSA)

 

Justicia quinqueangularis K.D.Koenig ex Roxb.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 2247 (BSA)

 

Peristrophe bicalyculata (Retz.) Nees

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259263(LWG)

 

Ruellia suffruticosa Roxb.

Shrub

Native

Mishra 9935 (BSA)

 

Rungia pectinata (L.) Nees

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259237(LWG)

Aizoaceae

Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.

Herb

Native

Singh at al. EBH 249 (LWG)

 

Trianthema portulacastrum L

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304102 (LWG)

Ampelidaceae

Ampelocissus latifolia (Roxb.) Planch.

Climber

Native

Mishra 9736 (BSA)

Amranthaceae

Achyranthes aspera L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 264710 (LWG)

 

Aerva lanata (L.) Juss.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 254359 (LWG)

 

Allmania nodiflora (L.) R.Br. ex Wight

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12590 (BSA)

 

Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) Sm.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 254289 (LWG)

 

Alternanthera paronychioides A.St.-Hil.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha  254690 (LWG)

 

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259235 (LWG)

 

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha  254691 (LWG)

 

Amaranthus tricolor L.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12631 (BSA)

 

Amaranthus viridis L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha  254700 (LWG)

 

Celosia argentea L.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha  245695 (LWG)

 

Digera muricata (L.) Mart.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha  245692 (LWG)

 

Nothosaerva brachiata (L.) Wight

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304104 (LWG)

Anacardiaceae

Buchanania cochinchinensis (Lour.) M.R. Almeida

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259255 (LWG)

 

Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259825 (LWG)

 

Mangifera indica L.

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 259801 (LWG)

 

Semecarpus anacardium L.f.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259810 (LWG)

Annonaceae

Annona squmosa L.

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254696 (LWG)

 

Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) Sinclair

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259852 (LWG)

 

Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thw.

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254699 (LWG)

 

Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259881 (LWG)

Apiaceae

Anethum graveolens L.

Herb

Cultivated

Singh & Party EBH489 (LWG)

 

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban

Herb

Native

Kushwaha  259883 (LWG)

 

Coriandrum sativum L.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha  259878 (LWG)

Apocynaceae

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254697 (LWG)

 

Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br.

Small tree

Native

Kushwaha 304106 (LWG)

 

Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 259285 (LWG)

 

Carissa carandas L.

Small tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 259812 (LWG)

 

Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 259819 (LWG)

 

Carissa spinarum L.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 254363 (LWG)

 

Catharanthus pusillus (Murray) G.Don

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12587 (BSA)

 

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259298 (LWG)

 

Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T.Aiton

Climber

Native

Kushwaha 259849 (LWG)

 

Oxystelma esculentum (L.f.) Sm.

Climber

Native

Kushwaha 304108 (LWG)

 

Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 259824 (LWG)

 

Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabberley

Small tree

Native

Kushwaha 304118 (LWG)

 

Wrightia tinctoria R.Br.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254509 (LWG)

 

Plumeria rubra L.

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 304122 (LWG)

 

Plumeria alba L.

Small tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 304127 (LWG)

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia indica L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304131 (LWG)

Asclepiadaceae

Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn.

Climber

Native

Panigrahi 12577 (BSA)

 

Cryptolepis dubia (Burm.f.) M.R.Almeida 

Climber

Native

Panigrahi 9971 (BSA)

 

Gymnema rivulare Schltr.

Climber

Native

Panigrahi 9660 (BSA)

 

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

Herb

Native

Singh & Party EBH735 (LWG)

 

Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Moon

Woody climber

Native

Mishra 9960 (BSA)

 

Telosma pallida (Roxb.) W. G. Craib

Shrub

Native

Panigrahi 12380 (BSA)

Asteraceae

Acanthospermum hispidum DC.

Herb

Alien

Panigrahi 12329 (BSA)

 

Acilepis aspera (Buch.-Ham.) H.Rob.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12083 (BSA)

 

Acmella calva (DC.) Jansen

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304197 (LWG)

 

Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 304198 (LWG)

 

Artemisia nilagirica (C.B.Clarke) Pamp.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12422 (BSA)

 

Bidens pilosa L.

Herb

Alien

Panigrahi 1090 (BSA)

 

Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philipson

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 259259 (LWG)

 

Blumea lacera DC.

Herb

Alien

Panigrahi 13707 (BSA)

 

Blumea axillaris (Lam.) DC.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259817 (LWG)

 

Blumea fistulosa (Roxb.) Kurz

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12051 (BSA)

 

Blumea laciniata (Wall. ex Roxb.) DC.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 13738 (BSA)

 

Blumea oxyodonta DC.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304199 (LWG)

 

Caesulia axillaris Roxb. 

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12559 (BSA)

 

Carthamus oxyacantha M.Bieb.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12027 (BSA)

 

Chrysanthellum indicum DC.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304191 (LWG)

 

Conyza leucantha (D.Don) Ludlow & P.H.Raven

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 13644 (BSA)

 

Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob. 

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12065 (BSA)

 

Cyathocline purpurea (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Kuntze

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259815 (LWG)

 

Echinops echinatus Roxb.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 259286 (LWG)

 

Eclipta prostrata L. 

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 254361 (LWG)

 

Elephantopus scaber L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 264709 (LWG)

 

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. ex DC.

Herb

Alien

Panigrahi 9692 (BSA)

 

Gnaphalium polycaulon Pers.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 254290 (LWG)

 

Gnaphalium indicum L.

Herb

Native

Koul & Party 47388 (LWG)

 

Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir.

Herb

Alien

Panigrahi 12623 (BSA)

 

Helichrysum indicum (L.) Grierson

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 13428 (BSA)

 

Ixeris polycephala Cass.

Herb

Native

Srivastava & Party (LWG)

 

Launaea acaulis (Roxb.) Babc. ex Kerr.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304192 (LWG)

 

Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramaya & Rajgopal

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304196 (LWG)

 

Parthenium hysterophorus L.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 254364 (LWG)

 

Pentanema indicum (L.) Ling

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 9614 (BSA)

 

Pluchea indica (L.) Less.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259838 (LWG)

 

Pulicaria crispa Sch.Bip.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 9621 (BSA)

 

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 254279 (LWG)

 

Sphaeranthus indicus L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259805 (LWG)

 

Tagetes erecta L.

Herb

Native

Singh & Party EBH 487 (LWG)

 

Tridax procumbens (L.) L.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 254597 (LWG)

 

Xanthium strumarium L.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 259773 (LWG)

Basellaceae

Basella alba L.

Climber

Native

Kushwaha 304200 (LWG)

Bignoniaceae

Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos    

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254292 (LWG)

 

Fernandoa adenophylla (Wall. ex G. Don) Steenis

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254694 (LWG)

 

Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 259867 (LWG)

 

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 254293 (LWG)

 

Tabebuia rosea DC.

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha  259867 (LWG)

 

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 259820 (LWG)

Bombacaceae

Bombax ceiba L.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259807 (LWG)

Boraginaceae

Cordia dichotoma G. Forst.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259761 (LWG)

 

Ehretia laevis Roxb.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259813 (LWG)

 

Heliotropium indicum L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259764 (LWG)

 

Heliotropium ovalifolium Forssk.

Herb

Native

Mishra 9798 (BSA)

 

Heliotropium supinum L.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 9631 (BSA)

 

Trichodesma indicum (L.) Lehm.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259808 (LWG)

Brassicaceae

Brassica nigra (L.) K.Koch

Shrub

Cultivated

Kushwaha 259766 (LWG)

 

Brassica rapa L. subsp. campestris (L.) Clapham

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha 254264 (LWG)

 

Eruca vesicari (L.) Cav.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 13911 (LWG)

 

Raphanus sativus L.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha 254266 (LWG)

Burseraceae

Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259773 (LWG)

Caryophyllaceae

Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 2220 (BSA)

 

Polycarpon prostratum (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf.

Herb

Native

Mishra 9807 (BSA)

 

Spergula arvensis L.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12630 (BSA)

 

Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert 

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259767 (LWG)

Cactaceae

Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Haw.

Shrub

Native

Singh & Saha EBH 585 (LWG)

 

Opuntia cochenillifera (L.) Mill.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 254267 (LWG)

 

Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.

Shrub

Alien

Kushwaha 254293 (LWG)

Campanulaceae

Lobelia alsinoides Lam. 

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259768 (LWG)

Cannabaceae

Cannabis sativa L.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 254269 (LWG)

 

Celtis australs L.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259769 (LWG)

 

Celtis tetrandra Roxb.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254272 (LWG)

 

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume

Tree

Native

Panigrahi & Prasad 2695 (BSA)

Capparidaceae

Capparis zeylanica L.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 259809 (LWG)

Casuarinaceae

Casuarina equisetifolia L.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha  259882 (LWG)

Celastraceae

Cassine glauca (Rottb.) Kuntze

Tree

Native

Panigrahi 13648 (BSA)

 

Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Shrub

Native

Singh & Party 9336 (LWG)

Ceratophyllaceae

Ceratophyllum demersum L. 

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259770 (LWG)

Chenopodiaceae

Chenopodium murale L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 254273 (LWG)

 

Chenopodium album L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259771 (LWG)

 

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 254265 (LWG)

Cleomaceae

Cleome gynandra L.

Herb

Alien

Panigrahi 13574 (BSA)

 

Cleome viscosa L.

Herb

Alien

Panigrahi 13724 (BSA)

Combretaceae

Anogeissus acuminata (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex

Guillem. & Perr.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254326 (LWG)

 

Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guillem. & Perr.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254510 (LWG)

 

Terminalia elliptica Willd

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254328 (LWG)

 

Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254457 (LWG)

 

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254475 (LWG)

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259292 (LWG)

 

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Climber

Alien

Kushwaha 254270 (LWG)

 

Erycibe paniculata Roxb.

Woody climber

Native

Panigrahi 2260 (BSA)

 

Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

Herb

Native

Mishra 9794 (BSA)

 

Evolvulus nummularius (L.) L.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 259848 (LWG)

 

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 2240 (BSA)

 

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

Climber

Cultivated

Kushwaha 259772 (LWG)

 

Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet 

Climber

Native

Kushwaha 259291 (LWG)

 

Ipomoea carnea Jacq.

Shrub

Alien

Kushwaha 254356 (LWG)

 

Ipomoea dichroa Choisy

Climber

Native

Panigrahi 12537 (BSA)

 

Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth

Climber

Native

Panigrahi 12382 (BSA)

 

Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker Gawl.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 254271 (LWG)

 

Ipomoea pes-tigridis L.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 259775 (LWG)

 

Ipomoea quamoclit L.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 254277 (LWG)

 

Merremia hederacea (Burm. f.) Hallier f.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259781 (LWG)

 

Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso

Climber

Native

Kushwaha 254278 (LWG)

 

Porana paniculata Roxb.

Climber

Native

Mishra 2237 (BSA)

Cornaceae

Alangium salviifolium (L.f.) Wangerin

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254274 (LWG)

Cucurbitaceae

Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.

Climber

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254303 (LWG)

 

Cayaponia laciniosa (L.) C.Jeffrey

Climber

Native

Kushwaha 254396 (LWG)

 

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259885 (LWG)

 

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumara & Nakai

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha 254445 (LWG)

 

Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 259880 (LWG)

 

Cucumis sativus L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha  254302 (LWG)

 

Cucumis melo L.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha 254423 (LWG)

 

Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis (Naudin) Pangalo

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha  259273 (LWG)

 

Cucurbita maxima Duch.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha 254596 (LWG)

 

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey

Herb

Native

Kushwaha  254396 (LWG)

 

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha 254280 (LWG)

 

Luffa hermaphrodita Singh & Bandhari

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254431 (LWG)

 

Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254320 (LWG)

 

Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha  259802 (LWG)

 

Momordica charantia L. 

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254433 (LWG)

 

Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha  254304 (LWG)

 

Mukia maderaspatana (L.) M.Roem.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254310 (LWG)

 

Trichosanthes cucumerina L.

Climber

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254429 (LWG)

 

Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. anguina (L.) Haines

Climber

Native

Kushwaha 254437 (LWG)

 

Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

Herb

Cultivated

Kushwaha  254426 (LWG)

Dipterocarpaceae

Shorea robusta Gaertn.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259826 (LWG)

Ebenaceae

Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.

Small tree

Native

Kushwaha 254523 (LWG)

 

Diospyros montana Roxb.

Small tree

Native

Kushwaha 254487 (LWG)

Elatinaceae

Bergia ammannioides Roxb. ex Roth

Herb

Native

Shrivastava 21670 (LWG)

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha ciliata Forssk.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12233 (BSA)

 

Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh

Shrub

Native

Panigrahi 12634 (BSA)

 

Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 304194 (LWG)

 

Croton bonplandianus Baill.

Herb

Alien

Kushwaha 254352 (LWG)

 

Euphorbia hirta L.

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304189 (LWG)

 

Euphorbia hypericifolia L.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 13413 (BSA)

 

Euphorbia prostrata Aiton

Herb

Native

Kushwaha 304193 (LWG)

 

Jatropha gossypiifolia L. 

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 304190 (LWG)

 

Mallotus nudiflorus (L.) Kulju & Welzen

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254294 (LWG)

 

Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll.Arg.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 2598621 (LWG)

 

Microstachys chamaelea (L.) Müll.Arg.

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 2017 (BSA)

 

Ricinus communis L.

Shrub

Native

Kushwaha 304188 (LWG)

Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae

Bauhinia malabarica Roxb.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha  254378 (LWG)

 

Bauhinia purpurea L.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259242 (LWG)

 

Bauhinia racemosa Lam.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259251 (LWG)

 

Bauhinia semla Wunderlin

Tree

Native

Kushwaha & Chaudhary

259831 (LWG)

 

Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn.

Tree

Native

Panigrahi 13825 (BSA)

 

Bauhinia variegata L.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 259263 (LWG)

 

Cassia fistula L.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254376 (LWG)

 

Chamaecrista absus (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

Tree

Native

Chaudhary & Kushwaha 

259265 (LWG)

 

Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene

Herb

Native

Panigrahi 12208 (BSA)

 

Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf.

Tree

Cultivated

Chaudhary & Kushwaha  

259855 (LWG)

 

Hardwickia binata Roxb.

Tree

Native

Kushwaha 254324 (LWG)

 

Parkinsonia aculeata L.

Small tree

Native

Kushwaha 259261 (LWG)

 

Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K.Heyne

Tree

Cultivated

Kushwaha 254297 (LWG)