Journal of Threatened Taxa | | 26 August 2017 | 9(8): 10581–10584







First records of Zinaspa todara distorta de Nicéville, 1887 and Arhopala rama ramosa Evans, 1925 (Lycaenidae: Theclinae) butterflies in Bangladesh


Tania Khan 1, Mohammad Quamruzzaman Babu 2, Mohammad Ashraf Ul Hasan 3, Tahsinur Rahman Shihan 4 & Prosenjit Debbarma 5

1 Founder, SOUL (Save Our Unprotected Life) Organization, Moulvi Bazar 3200, Bangladesh

2,5 Wildlife Conservation Team of Bangladesh (WCTBD), House - 25, Road- 18, Sector- 11, Uttara- 1230, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3 Department of Zoology, Jagannath University, 9–10, Chitaranjan Avenue, Dhaka, Bangladesh

4 Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

4 Present address: Belgachi Railgate Para, Chuadanga 7200, Bangladesh

1, 2, 3, 4 (corresponding author), 5





doi: | ZooBank:


Editor: Anonymity requetsed. Date of publication: 26 August 2017 (online & print)


Manuscript details: Ms # 3132 | Received 11 November 2016 | Final received 29 July 2017 | Finally accepted 04 August 2017


Citation: Khan, T., M.Q. Babu, M.A. Hasan, T.R. Shihan & P. Debbarma (2017). First records of Zinaspa todara distorta de Nicéville, 1887 and Arhopala rama ramosa Evans, 1925 (Lycaenidae: Theclinae) butterflies in Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(8): 10581–10584;


Copyright: © Khan et al. 2017. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.


Funding: SOUL (Save Our Unprotected Life) Organizaton and Wildlife Conservaton Team of Bangladesh (WCTBD).


Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.


Acknowledgements: Authors are grateful to Mr. Peter Smetacek and Dr. George Michael van der Poorten for improvement of the manuscript






Abstract: Zinaspa todara distorta de Nicéville, 1887 and Arhopala rama ramosa Evans, 1925 were recorded during the field survey from March 2016 to August 2016. A total of four individuals were recorded in the Adampur Forest and Satchari National Park of Sylhet Division in northeastern Bangladesh. These are the first records of these subspecies from Bangladesh.

Keywords: Adampur Forest, Arhopala rama ramosa, Satchari National Park, Zinaspa todara distorta.







Zinaspa todara and Arhopala rama are two lycaenid butterflies found in the Indian subcontinent. Z. todara is known from India (Western Ghats [Goa southwards], Sikkim eastwards, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland), Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam (Kehimkar 2008; Gogoi 2012; Inayoshi 2016). The butterfly is represented by three subspecies; (i) Z. todara todara (Goa, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala of India) (Mathew 1994; Varshney & Smetacek 2015; IFB 2016), (ii) Z. todara distorta (Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura of India) (Varshney & Smetacek 2015; IFB 2016; Sondhi & Kunte 2016) and (iii) Z. todara karennia (Karen Hills to Dawnas in Myanmar, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam and Thailand) (Pinratana 1981; Inayoshi 2016).

The butterfly Arhopala rama is distributed in India (Jammu & Kashmir to Sikkim), Nepal, Pakistan and Bhutan (Kehimkar 2008). It has also been reported from Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam (Inoyashi 2016). The butterfly is represented by two subspecies; (i) A. rama rama (Pakistan, India [Jammu & Kashmir to Sikkim], Nepal, Bhutan) (Evans 1927; Evans 1957; Varshney & Smetacek 2015) and (ii) A. rama ramosa (India [Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur], Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam) (Evans 1927; Singh 2015; Varshney & Smetacek 2015; Inoyashi 2016).

In the present paper, we report the presence of Zinaspa todara distorta (Silver Streaked Acacia Blue) and Arhopala rama ramosa (Dark Himalayan Oakblue) in Bangladesh from Adampur Forest and Satchari National Park.

Materials and Methods

Study area: Adampur Forest: This forest belonging to Rajkandi Reserve Forest (Image 1) is situated in Kamalganj Upazila of Moulvibazar District under the administrative division of Sylhet. It is approximately 80km from Srimangal Town. The forest covers an area of 100km2 (approximately) and is divided into Adampur beat, Khurma beat and Kamarchara beat. The prominent plant species of the forest are Dipterocarpus sp., Alangium agallocha, Artocarpus chaplasha, Anthocephalus chinensis, Tectona grandis, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Ardisia solanacea, Hibiscus macrophylus, Antides maghasembilla, Syzygium grandis, Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus glaberrima, various species of Bambusa, Coccinea cordifolia, Eupatorium odoratum and Heliotropium indicum, etc., (Muzaffar et al. 2010).

Satchari National Park: It is situated in the northeastern part of Bangladesh in Sylhet Division (Image 1). The park comprises 2.43km2 of forest carved out of the Raghunandan Hills Reserve Forest in the Satchari Range, situated nearly 130km northeast of Dhaka. Administratively, the park is located in Chunarughat Upazila, an administrative subdistrict of Habiganj District. India borders the park to the south and other adjacent lands are under tea estates, rubber and agar (Aquilaria sp.) plantations and paddy fields. The area was previously classified as mixed evergreen forest, but the large-scale conversion of indigenous forest cover to plantations has resulted in the reduction in area under natural forest and secondary forest (Choudhury et al. 2004).





Butterflies were sampled by visual estimation and surveys undertaken opportunistically, employing no particular methods (Chowdhury 2014; Singh & Kitching 2014). The study was started in May 2014 and continued until August 2016. During the study period, we surveyed the butterflies of five protected areas (Rajkandi Reserve Forest, Lawachara National Park, Madhabkunda Eco Park, Satchari National Park and Rema-kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary) of Sylhet Division. As part of this survey Zinaspa todara distorta and Arhopala rama ramosa were recorded in the Adampur Forest of Rajkandi Reserve Forest and Satchari National Park respectively. Species identifications were done following available literature (Evans 1927; Evans 1932; Wynter-Blyth 1957; Kehimkar 2008). Specimens were only photographed. Due to lack of permission specimens were not preserved.

Result and Discussion

Silver Streaked Acacia Blue Zinaspa todara distorta (Images 2–3): One individual of Zinaspa todara distorta was recorded in Adampur Forest (24.26280278 N & 91.91277778 E) on 06 March 2016 at an elevation of 93m and another individual was recorded on 27 August 2016 at 12:00hr at Satchari National Park (24.14528333 N & 91.43944444 E) at an elevation of 36.6m. Both individuals were resting on leaves at a height of 1.5m from the ground.

According to Evans (1927) and Kehimkar (2008) the morphological characteristics of Zinaspa todara are:

Under side of fore wing: Pale brown, glossed with wine color. Wavy silvery discal line present. Costal and cell spots absent. Pale metallic blue line presents, which is 1–4mm wide at apex, a black spot at end of cell. Below darker and markings rather differently arranged, being a cross between no. 4 and no. 1. Discal line obliquely bent from v3 to costa.

Under side of hind wing: Tailed at vein 2. Irregular silvery line at base, another passing through the end of the cell, and a third in outer discal area. Central line as in no. 1 and post-discal line obsure as in no.1

The above described morphological characteristics of Zinaspa todara completely match with our photographed specimens so there is no doubt about the identification of the genus and species. However, the distribution record of the subspecies Z. t. distorta was close to our study area, so it should be Z. t. distorta and not Z. t. todara.

Habit and Habitat: Zinaspa todara was seen in the Himalayas up to 400m in March, and May to September in southern India. The recorded larval host plants of this species were Acacia pennata, Acacia torta and Acacia suma of Family Mimosaceae (Kehimkar 2008). Adults are attracted to sweat-lined clothes (Sondhi & Kunte 2016).

The status of the species was uncommon as noted by Evans (1932). Kehimkar (2008), however, reported the species to be common. Tytler (1915) also reported the species was common at low elevations in Manipur.

Dark Himalayan Oakblue Arhopala rama ramosa (Image 4): Two individuals of Arhopala rama ramosa were observed in the Adampur Forest (24.26816389 N & 91.90555556 E) on 14 April 2016 at 14:30hr at an elevation of 72m. Both were resting on leaves at a height of 1.0m above ground level.

According to the description of Singh (2015) Arhopala rama can be easily distinguished from other similar species like Arhopala athada and Arhopala atrax by the presence of a tail on the hind wing and not conspicuously lobed at tornus. The species is purple brown below.

The distinguishing characteristics of the two subspecies, rama and ramosa are as follows:

Arhopala rama ramosa Kollar, 1848 has underside markings dull and faint. Upper side, in male: dull and faint line 1 and half to 2mm wide. Female dull and faint line 4–7 mm wide and on hind wing blue colour just before the end of the cell (Evans 1932, 1957).

Arhopala rama ramosa Evans, 1925 has underside markings darker and better defined. Upper side male dull and faint line 1mm on forewing and on hind wing just under 1mm. Female purple colour extends beyond cell. It is darker below and more purple washed (Evans 1932, 1957).

According to the identifying characteristics our recorded species was Arhopala rama ramosa.

Habit and Habitat: Smetacek (2011) reported A. rama, which is on the wing throughout the year and appears to have a brood during the winter months at 1500m elevation in Maheshkhan Reserve Forest, Uttarakhand. It has been bred on Quercus leucotrichophora (Oak) in neighbouring Garhwal (Wynter-Blyth 1957) and this is presumably their host plant in the area.






Choudhury, J.K., S.R. Biswas, M.S. Islam, O. Rahman & S.N. Uddin (2004). Biodiversity of Satchari Reserved Forest, Habiganj. Dhaka, Bangladesh, IUCN Bangladesh Country Office.

Chowdhury, S. (2014). Butterflies of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal, eastern India: a preliminary survey of their taxonomic diversity, ecology and their conservation. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(8): 6082–6092;

Evans, W.H. (1927). The Identification of Indian Butterflies - 1st Edition. The Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India, 302pp.

Evans, W.H. (1932). The Identification of Indian Butterflies - 2nd Edition. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 454pp.

Evans, W.H. (1957). A revision of the Arhopala group of oriental Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Bulletin of British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 5(1): 122–123.

Gogoi, M.J. (2012). Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Dibang Valley, Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(12): 3137–3160;

IFB (Indian Foundation for Butterflies) (2016). (accessed: 09 November 2016, 06 December 2016).

Inayoshi, Y. (2016). A Check List of Butterflies in Indo-China (chiefly from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam) ( html). Accessed 07 November 2016

Kehimkar, I. (2008). The Book of Indian Butterflies. Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press, Mumbai, India, 497pp.

Mathew, G. (1994). Insect biodiversity in tropical forests: A study with reference to butterflies and moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) in the Silent Valley National Park (Kerala). Advances in Forestry Research in India 11: 134–171

Muzaffar, S.B., M.A. Aziz, M.M. Kabir, M. Uddin & M. Chakma (2010). Baseline survey of Bears in Bangladesh 2008–2010. Wildlife Trust of Bangladesh, 44pp.

Pinratana, A. (1981). Butterflies in Thailand, Vol. 4 - Lycaenidae. Viratham Press, Bangkok, 252pp.

Singh, I.J. & I.J. Kitching (2014). A first record of Clanis hyperion Cadiou & Kitching, 1990 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in Bhutan, and a preliminary checklist of the hawkmoths of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(1): 5386–5388;

Singh, R.P. (2015). Recent report of Dark Himalayan Oakblue Arhopala rama Kollar, 1848 (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea: Theclinae) from Tenga Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(15): 8296–8298;–8298

Smetacek, P. (2011). Detrimental effects of low atmospheric humidity and forest fire on a community of western Himalayan butterflies. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4): 1694–1701;

Sondhi, S. & K. Kunte (2016). Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(8): 9053–9124;

Tytler, H.C. (1915). Notes on some new and interesting butterflies from Manipur and the Naga Hills. Part III. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 24: 119–155.

Varshney, R.K. & P. Smetacek (eds.) (2015). A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India. Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal and Indinov Publishing, New Delhi, ii+261pp.

Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, xx+523+72pls.



Short Communication