Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 August 2020 | 12(11): 16576–16596

 

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online) | ISSN 0974-7893 (Print) 

doi: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3094.12.11.16576-16596

#3094 | Received 09 January 2020 | Final received 13 January 2020 | Finally accepted 06 July 2020

 

 

 

A preliminary checklist of spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) in Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary, Panchmahal District, Gujarat, India

 

Reshma Solanki 1#, Manju Siliwal 2  & Dolly Kumar 3

 

1,3 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat 390002, India.

2 Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society, 12 Thiruvannamalai Nagar, Saravanampatti-Kalapatti Road, Saravanampatti, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641035, India.

# - deceased

1 solankireshma46@gmail.com, 2 manjusiliwal@gmail.com, 3 dollymsu@gmail.com (corresponding author)

 

 

 

Editor: Anonymity requested.   Date of publication: 26 August 2020 (online & print)

 

Citation: Solanki, R., M. Siliwal & D. Kumar (2020). A preliminary checklist of spiders (Araneae: Arachnida) in Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary, Panchmahal District, Gujarat, India.  Journal of Threatened Taxa 12(11): 16576–16596. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3094.12.11.16576-16596

 

Copyright: © Solanki et al. 2020. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  JoTT allows unrestricted use, reproduction, and distribution of this article in any medium by providing adequate credit to the author(s) and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the following personnel/ organizations: PCCF, Gujarat Forest Department for giving permission to carry out spider surveys in Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda for granting UGC-RFSMS fellowship; Dr. Suresh Kumar, Wildlife Institute of India, for providing technical support; special thanks to Mr. Kartik Upadhyay for helping in the photography of spiders; Mr. Harshad Bariya and Mr. Pritesh Patel for their assistance during field work and for preparing the maps, respectively; Prof. Arun Arya, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, for providing technical support.

 

 

Abstract: Studies relating to spiders in Gujarat have been sporadic and most of the spider documentation have been done from agriculture fields, wetlands and  few from protected areas.  One such undocumented area was Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary, Panchmahal District, Gujarat.  Therefore, a study to document the spider diversity was carried out in Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary from July 2012 to October 2015. A combination of four sampling methods namely, belt transect along with hand-pick method, pitfall sampling, vegetation beating and leaf litter extraction were used for collection of spiders from different strata. During the study, a total of 138 species belonging to 90 genera and 29 families were recorded from the study area. Of which, 21 species and 17 genera were recorded for the first time from Gujarat State. The theridiid genus Cephalobares O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870 was recorded for the first time from India. The families Araneidae, Salticidae, Theridiidae and Oxyopidae were found to be dominant in the area. We recognized seven feeding guilds namely ambushers, foliage runners, ground runners, orb weavers, sheet web-builders, space web-builders and stalkers.  Amongst these, orb-weavers, stalkers and ground runners were dominant. This documentation, however, forms the baseline information for spiders of Jambughoda WLS, suggesting the great diversity of the spider fauna in this protected area, which can be further explored.

 

Keywords: Araneidae, orb-weavers, Oxyopidae, Panchmahal District, Salticidae, stalkers, Theridiidae, Vadodara District.

 

 

 

Spiders, in general, being chiefly entomophagous play an important ecological role in the terrestrial ecosystem (Marc et al. 1999; Skerl & Gillespie 1999).  Due to their ability of aerial ballooning they can readily disperse into different habitats and being generalist predators they are abundant in all terrestrial habitats (Coddington & Levi 1991).  They also play a significant role in controlling the insect populations in the agricultural fields (Riechert & Bishop 1990).  They also play an important role in the food chain by being abundant food source for birds, lizards, wasps, and other animals.  Over 48,643 valid species of spiders belonging to more than 4,173 genera and 128 families have been reported throughout the world (World Spider Catalog 2019).  Out of which, over 1,700 species belonging to more than 450 genera and 61 different families have been reported from India (World Spider Catalog 2019).  

Though in the past, spider documentation from Gujarat have been sporadic but is relatively better recorded as compared to other states in the country.  Major contribution to the spider fauna of the Gujarat was done by Patel and team by describing 47 species from 18 families (Patel 1971, 1973, 1988, 1989, 2003; Patel & Patel 1972, 1975; Patel & Reddy 1990; Parasharya & Vyas 2013).  Apart from these reports, several other sporadic checklists from agricultural fields (Kumar & Shivakumar 2006; Trivedi 2009) and habitats in Gujarat contributed to addition of new species and new distribution records (Siliwal & Kumar 2001; Kumar & Shivakumar 2006; Trivedi 2009; Parasharya et al. 2011; Vachhani et al. 2012; Parmar & Patel 2015; Vasava et al. 2015; Prajapati et al. 2016a,b,c).  So far, over 400 species of spiders have been reported from Gujarat (Kumar 2015; Yadav et al. 2017).

In Gujarat State, most of the spider documentation has been done from nonprotected areas like agriculture fields, wetlands etc. and very few from protected areas.  A total of 27 regions are deemed as protected areas in Gujarat from which, only 10 areas areas have a documentation of spiders, viz., Barda WS (62 species) (Singh et al. 2000a), Hingolgadh Nature Education Sanctuary (56 species) (Singh et al. 2000b; Patel & Vyas 2001), Jessore WS (157 species) (Pandey et al. 2004a), Narayan Sarovar WS (24 species) (Singh et al. 2001), Purna WS (116 species) (Siliwal et al. 2003; Pandey et al. 2004b), Rampara WS (21 species) (Singh & Tatu 1999), Ratanmahal Sloth Bear Sanctuary (42 species) (Patel et al. 2012), Shoolpaneshwar WS (147 species) (Pandey & Raval 2010), Vansda NP (124 species) (Singh et al. 2000c, Patel 2003), and Wild Ass WS (27 species) (Singh et al. 1999).

The Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary (WS) is one such unstudied protected area in central Gujarat located between Panchmahal and Vadodara districts known for its relatively rich biodiversity including flagship species like Sloth Bear and Leopard.  Studies in the past in Jambughoda WS from this protected area were restricted to flora and higher vertebrates like mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes (Padate et al. 2003; Vyas 2006; Devkar et al. 2013).  Moreover, invertebrate documentation from this area was restricted only to lepidopteran and few insect species (Padate et al. 2003).  Therefore, in the present study, we initiated documentation of spider diversity from Jambughoda WS.

 

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted in the Jambughoda WS, which is located between 22.333–22.550 0N and 73.583–75.750 0E in Panchmahal and Vadodara districts of Gujarat State, India (Figure 1).  The sanctuary area extends over 130.38km2 and is covered by three forest ranges, viz., Halol, Jambughoda, and Vadodara.  Altitudes ranges from 230 to 354 m.  Jambughoda WS consists of southern tropical dry deciduous type forest, further classified into four sub-types, i.e., 5A/ C 1b dry teak forest, 5A/C 2 southern dry mixed deciduous forest, 5/E 9 dry bamboo brakes, and 3B/C 2 southern moist mixed deciduous forest (Champion & Seth 1968).  The sanctuary has both natural forest and plantations.  The mean annual temperature in the sanctuary is 25.5˚C, with a maximum of 45˚C and a minimum of 7˚C and the area receives an average annual rainfall, which ranges 800–1,200 mm (Pandya & Oza 1998).

To explore the spider diversity of Jambughoda WS, the sampling was carried out from July 2012 till October 2015.  A combination of four sampling methods namely, belt transect (Kapoor 2006) was applied for overall diversity count; pitfall sampling (Curtis 1980; Green 1999) was done for ground-dwelling spiders; vegetation beating was done for spiders inhabiting in vegetation; leaf litter extraction (Crossley & Hoglund 1962; Kapoor 2006) was used for spider taxa associated with moisture and sheltered areas.  All the collected specimens were preserved in 70–80% ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and stored separately in clear tarsons polypropylene (PP) sampling containers (50ml).  Each specimen was labeled which that included the date of collection, locality of collection and the name of collector.  Further, these preserved specimens were identified under a using stereomicroscope (WILDTM). Spiders were identified up to the species level using the standard monographs (Levi & Levi 1962; Tikader 1977, 1980, 1982, 1987; Tikader & Biswas 1981; Tikader & Malhotra 1980; Pocock 1900; Majumder & Tikader 1991; Gajbe 2008; Javed & Tampal 2010; Vankhede et. al. 2013; Keswani & Vankehede 2014).  Whereas, immature spiders were classified up to the genus or family level.  For species level identification epigyne was dissected and cleaned in concentrated lactic acid for 15–20 minutes.  All specimens are deposited in the museum of Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, and curated by DK; later on these specimens will be deposited in a national repository.

 

Results and Discussion

The present study resulted in the record of 138 spider species belonging to 90 genera and 29 families from Jambughoda WS along with their natural history notes (Table 3; Image 1–138).  Of these 29 families, the most dominant family was Araneidae (26 species) followed by Salticidae (17 species), Theridiidae (11 species), and Oxyopidae (10 species), however, families with high generic diversity were Araneidae and Salticidae (14 genera each), followed by Theridiidae (11 genera), and Gnaphosidae (six genera).  Whereas, 15 families, viz., Clubionidae, Corinnidae, Ctenidae, Eresidae, Cheiracanthiidae, Liocranidae, Oecobiidae, Palpimanidae, Philodromidae, Prodidomidae, Scytodidae, Sicariidae, Stenochilidae, Titanoecidae, and Zodariidae were represented by a single genus.

Out of the 90 genera identified from the Jambughoda WS, 17 genera were recorded for the first time from Gujarat State (Table 1).  The genus Cephalobares O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870 belonging to family Theridiidae is documented for the first time from India during the present study.  This genus was previously reported only from two countries, i.e., China and Sri Lanka, and comprise of only two species, namely, Cephalobares globiceps O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870 reported from both the countries and Cephalobares yangdingi Gao & Li, 2010 reported only from type locality in China (World Spider Catalog 2017).

Amongst the recorded 138 species of spiders, 21 spider species were recorded for the first time from Gujarat (Table 2) wherein Poltys cf. columnaris of the family Araneidae and Zosis cf. geniculata of the family Uloboridae were juveniles; because of their peculiar external characteristics of abdominal shape and pattern they were identified easily till species level.

Out of the eight feeding guilds described by Uetz et al. (1999), we found seven feeding guilds based on foraging behaviour of spiders from Jambughoda WS namely, ambushers, foliage runners, ground runners, orb weavers, sheet web-builders, space web-builders, and stalkers.  From all these seven functional groups the dominant guild was of orb weavers (39 species) followed by stalkers (27 species), ground runners (25 species), foliage runners (19 species), space web-builders (14 species), ambushers (11 species), and sheet web builders (3 species) (Figure 2).  The dominance of orb weavers could be due to mixed vegetation found in the forest, which provides enough space to build their webs of different sizes and also provide protection from their predators (Siliwal et al. 2003; Patel et al. 2012).

In addition to this, during the present study we also came across six spiders which are probably new to science (Singa sp., Brignolia sp., Prodidomus sp., Epocilla sp., Euryopis sp., & Storena sp.) and will be published separately after comparative taxonomic work.

 

Conclusion

A preliminary checklist of spiders from Jambughoda WS, Panchmahal District, Gujarat is provided in this paper which is the first ever documentation of the spiders of Jambughoda from this sanctuary.  Data presented here may aid future initiatives to build a biodiversity database of spider fauna in this region.  The presence of 138 species of spiders in a dry deciduous forest like Jambughoda WS indicates that, to sustain such rich biodiversity the habitat has to be ecologically balanced and this southern tropical dry deciduous forest is one of them as it has capability to sustain such diverse number of flora and fauna including spiders.  And, therefore, it was possible to get interesting first records of genus and species from this area.  This documentation, however, is by no means inclusive but forms the baseline information for spiders of Jambughoda WS suggesting the great diversity of the spider fauna in this protected area.

 

 

Table 1. List of genera recorded for the first time from Gujarat, India.

 

 

Families

List of genera

1

Araneidae

Gea C.L. Koch, 1843

2

Araneidae

Lipocrea Thorell, 1878

3

Araneidae

Singa C.L. Koch, 1836

4

Gnaphosidae

Megamyrmaekion Reuss, 1834

5

Hersiliidae

Murricia Simon, 1882

6

Oonopidae

Brignolia Dumitrescu & Georgescu, 1983

7

Oxyopidae

Hamadruas Deeleman-Reinhold, 2009

8

Pisauridae

Hygropoda Thorell, 1894

9

Pisauridae

Nilus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876

10

Prodidomidae

Prodidomus Hentz, 1847

11

Salticidae

Portia Karsch, 1878

12

Salticidae

Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886

13

Theridiidae

Cephalobares O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870*

14

Theridiidae

Euryopis Menge, 1868

15

Theridiidae

Meotipa Simon, 1894

16

Theridiidae

Yaginumena Yoshida, 2002

17

Uloboridae

Zosis Walckenaer, 1841

 

*This genus is recorded for the first time from India.

 

 

Table 2. List of species recorded for the first time from Gujarat, India.

 

Families

List of species

1

Araneidae

Gea subarmata Thorell, 1890

2

Araneidae

Lipocrea fusiformis (Thorell, 1877)

3

Araneidae

Poltys bhabanii (Tikader, 1970)

4

Araneidae

Poltys cf. columnaris Thorell, 1890

5

Araneidae

Poltys nagpurensis Tikader, 1982

6

Clubionidae

Clubiona foliata Keswani & Vankhede, 2014

7

Ctenidae

Ctenus narashinhai Patel & Reddy, 1988

8

Gnaphosidae

Scopoides kuljitae (Tikader, 1982)

9

Gnaphosidae

Zelotes mandae Tikader & Gajbe, 1979

10

Hersiliidae

Murricia hyderabadensis Javed & Tampal, 2010

11

Oxyopidae

Hamadruas sikkimensis (Tikader, 1970)

12

Oxyopidae

Peucetia yogeshi Gajbe, 1999

13

Pisauridae

Hygropoda cf. mahendriensis Vankhede, Keswani & Rajoria, 2013

14

Pisauridae

Nilus phipsoni (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898)

15

Sicariidae

Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820)

16

Tetragnathidae

Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1758)

17

Tetragnathidae

Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877)

18

Theridiidae

Coleosoma blandum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882

19

Theridiidae

Meotipa picturata Simon, 1895

20

Theridiidae

Yaginumena maculosa (Yoshida & Ono, 2000)

21

Uloboridae

Zosis cf. geniculata (Olivier, 1789)

 

 

Table 3. List of spider species documented from Jambughoda Wildlife Sanctuary, Panchmahal District, Gujarat, India.

 

Family

Scientific name

No. of specimens collected & sex

Voucher no.

12,13,14,15

Natural history notes

Image no.

1.

Araneidae

Araneus mitificus (Simon, 1886)

3F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-61

ZOL-13-ARA-62

ZOL-13-ARA-63

ZOL-14-ARA-125

Found resting in the retreat of folded leaf which was attached to the one end of its orb web

Image 1

2.

Araneidae

Argiope aemula (Walckenaer, 1841)

2F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-1

ZOL-12-ARA-2

ZOL-12-ARA-3

Observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of its orb web

Image 2

3.

Araneidae

Argiope anasuja Thorell, 1887

2F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-4

ZOL-12-ARA-5

ZOL-12-ARA-6

Observed feeding on moths, grasshoppers entangled in its web

Image 3

4.

Araneidae

Chorizopes sp.

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-126

Collected from underside of leave resting in its mesh web

Image 4

5.

Araneidae

Cyclosa confraga (Thorell, 1892)

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-127

Collected from its web, decorated with a longitudinal line of debris passing through the hub were the spider camouflages itself

Image 5

6.

Araneidae

Cyclosa hexatuberculata Tikader, 1982

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-64

Collected from its web, decorated with a longitudinal line of debris passing through the hub were the spider camouflages it self

Image 6

7.

Araneidae

Cyclosa moonduensis Tikader, 1963

1F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-7

ZOL-12-ARA-8

Observed hanging by a single strand of silk over the lower vegetation

Image 7

8.

Araneidae

Cyclosa spirifera Simon, 1889

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-65

Collected from its web, decorated with a longitudinal line of debris passing through the hub were the spider camouflages it self

Image 8

9.

Araneidae

Cyrtophora cicatrosa (Stoliczka, 1869)

2F

ZOL-12-ARA-9

ZOL-12-ARA-10

Observed resting in upside down position at the center of its tent shape web

Image 9

10.

Araneidae

Cyrtophora citricola (Forsskål, 1775)              

2F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-66

ZOL-13-ARA-67

ZOL-14-ARA-128

Observed resting in upside down position at the center of the tent shape web

Image 10

11.

Araneidae

Eriovixia excelsa (Simon, 1889)

2F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-11

ZOL-12-ARA-12

ZOL-14-ARA-129

Nocturnal spider, during day time hides in their retreat (rolled leaf) attached at one end of its web

Image 11

12.

Araneidae

Eriovixia laglaizei (Simon, 1877)

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-130

Nocturnal spider, collected from its orb web

Image 12

13.

Araneidae

Eriovixia poonaensis (Tikader & Bal, 1981)

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-174

Nocturnal spider, found resting during day time in its retreat (rolled leaf)

Image 13

14.

Araneidae

Gasteracantha kuhli C.L. Koch, 1837

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-175

Collected from its orb web

Image 14

15.

Araneidae

Gea subarmata Thorell, 1890

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-176

Small orb web with uniformly circular radii constructed between blades of grass. Spider was found resting in the centre of the web. New record from Gujarat

Image 15

16.

Araneidae

Larinia chloris (Audouin, 1826)

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-13

Observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of the orb web

Image 16

17.

Araneidae

Lipocrea fusiformis (Thorell, 1877)

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-14

Observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of the orb web

Image 17

18.

Araneidae

Neoscona mukerjei Tikader, 1980

3F, 2M

ZOL-12-ARA-15

ZOL-12-ARA-16

ZOL-12-ARA-17

ZOL-13-ARA-68

ZOL-13-ARA-69

Observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of its orb web

Image 18

19.

Araneidae

Neoscona nautica (L. Koch, 1875)

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-131

Observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of its orb web

Image 19

20.

Araneidae

Neoscona theisi (Walckenaer, 1841)

3F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-70

ZOL-13-ARA-71

ZOL-14-ARA-132

ZOL-14-ARA-133

Observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of its orb web

Image 20

21.

Araneidae

Neoscona vigilans (Blackwall, 1865)

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-72

Observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of its orb web

Image 21

22.

Araneidae

Poltys bhabanii (Tikader, 1970)

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-134

Nocturnal spider, observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of its orb web

Image 22

23.

Araneidae

Poltys cf. columnaris Thorell, 1890

1J

ZOL-15-ARA-177

Nocturnal spiders, looks like dry broken twig of plant. At night they were found resting in the centre of their large orb web

Image 23

24.

Araneidae

Poltys nagpurensis Tikader, 1982

 1F

ZOL-15-ARA-178

Nocturnal spider, collected from its orb web constructed between two lower branches of Tectona grandis

Image 24

25.

Araneidae

Singa sp.

2F, 1M

ZOL-15-ARA-179

Observed hanging with a single strand of silk attached on one side to a leave and other side to a shrub branch

Image 25

26.

Araneidae

Thelacantha brevispina (Doleschall, 1857)

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-180

Observed resting in upside down position at the center (Hub) of its orb web

Image 26

27.

Clubionidae

Clubiona drassodes O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-18

Found resting on the underside of leaf

Image 27

28.

Clubionidae

Clubiona filicata O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-73

Found resting on the underside of leaf

Image 28

29.

Clubionidae

Clubiona foliata Keswani & Vankhede, 2014

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-74

Observed wandering on the foliage

Image 29

30.

Clubionidae

Clubiona pashabhaii Patel & Patel, 1973

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-19

Found resting on the underside of leaf

Image 30

31.

Corinnidae

Castianeira zetes Simon, 1897

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-135

Found running in the leaf litter

Image 31

32.

Ctenidae

Ctenus narashinhai Patel & Reddy, 1988

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-75

Found running in the leaf litter

Image 32

33.

Eresidae

Stegodyphus pacificus Pocock, 1900

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-181

Colonial spider, collected from its web which was having many entrances

Image 33

34.

Eresidae

Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsch, 1892

2F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-76

ZOL-13-ARA-77

ZOL-14-ARA-136

Colonial spider, collected from its web which was having many entrances

Image 34

35.

Cheiracanthiidae

Cheiracanthium inornatum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1874

1F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-78

ZOL-13-ARA-79

Collected resting on the grass blade

Image 35

36.

Eutichuridae

Cheiracanthium melanostomum (Thorell, 1895)

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-137

Collected while it was resting on the underside of leaf

Image 36

37.

Eutichuridae

Cheiracanthium triviale (Thorell, 1895)

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-138

Collected while it was resting on the underside of leaf

Image 37

38.

Eutichuridae

Cheiracanthium sp.

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-182

Collected while it was resting on the underside of leaf

Image 38

39.

Gnaphosidae

Drassodes sp.

1J

ZOL-15-ARA-183

Found under the bark of palm tree

Image 39

40.

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus sp.

1J

ZOL-15-ARA-184

Collected by pitfall method

Image 40

41.

Gnaphosidae

Megamyrmaekion ashae Tikader & Gajbe, 1977

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-185

Collected by pitfall method

Image 41

42.

Gnaphosidae

Scopoides kuljitae (Tikader, 1982)

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-186

Collected by applying litter sampling

Image 42

43.

Gnaphosidae

Scopoides sp.

1J

ZOL-15-ARA-187

Collected by applying litter sampling

Image 43

44.

Gnaphosidae

Trachyzelotes jaxartensis (Kroneberg, 1875)

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-188

Collected by pitfall method

Image 44

45.

Gnaphosidae

Zelotes mandae Tikader & Gajbe, 1979

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-139

Collected by pitfall method

Image 45

46.

Hersiliidae

Hersilia savignyi Lucas, 1836

3F, 2M

ZOL-12-ARA-20

ZOL-12-ARA-21

ZOL-13-ARA-80

ZOL-12-ARA-22

ZOL-13-ARA-81

Found camouflaged on the bark of trees. Observed feeding on Camponotus compressus

Image 46

47.

Hersiliidae

Murricia hyderabadensis Javed & Tampal, 2010

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-189

Found camouflaged on the bark of trees

Image 47

48.

Liocranidae

Oedignatha sp.

1M

ZOL-14-ARA-140

Collected by applying litter sampling

Image 48

49.

Lycosidae

Evippa sp.

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-23

Collected by pitfall method

Image 49

50.

Lycosidae

Hippasa lycosina Pocock, 1900

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-24

Collected by pitfall method

Image 50

51.

Lycosidae

Lycosa poonaensis Tikader & Malhotra, 1980

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-25

Collected by pitfall method

Image 51

52.

Lycosidae

Lycosa sp.

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-26

Collected by pitfall method

Image 52

53.

Lycosidae

Pardosa birmanica Simon, 1884

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-27

Collected by pitfall method

Image 53

54.

Lycosidae

Pardosa sumatrana (Thorell, 1890)

1F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-82

Collected by pitfall method

Image 54

55.

Oecobiidae

Oecobius putus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876

2F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-28

ZOL-12-ARA-29

ZOL-12-ARA-30

Collected from its web, constructed at the corner of huts in the village

Image 55

56.

Oonopidae

Brignolia sp.

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-141

Collected by pitfall method

Image 56

57.

Oonopidae

Unidentified species 1

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-142

Collected by pitfall method

Image 57

58.

Oxyopidae

Hamadruas sikkimensis (Tikader, 1970)

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-190

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 58

59.

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes ashae Gajbe, 1999

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-143

Found resting on grass blades

Image 59

60.

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes bharatae Gajbe, 1999

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-144

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 60

61.

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes birmanicus Thorell, 1887

2F

ZOL-12-ARA-31

Found resting on grass blades

Image 61

62.

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes pankaji Gajbe & Gajbe, 2000

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-145

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 62

63.

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes sp.

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-32

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 63

64.

Oxyopidae

Peucetia akwadaensis Patel, 1978

1M

ZOL-14-ARA-146

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 64

65.

Oxyopidae

Peucetia viridana (Stoliczka, 1869)

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-147

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 65

66.

Oxyopidae

Peucetia yogeshi Gajbe, 1999

1F, 1M

ZOL-14-ARA-148

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 66

67.

Oxyopidae

Peucetia sp.

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-33

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 67

68.

Palpimanidae

Unidentified species 2

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-83

Collected by pitfall method

Image 68

69.

Philodromidae

Tibellus elongatus Tikader, 1960

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-

Collected from the branch of tree where it was fully camouflaged

Image 69

70.

Pholcidae

Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867)

2F, 2M

ZOL-12-ARA-34

Collected from tangled web constructed between the lower vegetation in the forest

Image 70

71.

Pholcidae

Pholcus fragillimus Strand, 1907

2F, 2M

ZOL-12-ARA-35

ZOL-13-ARA-84

ZOL-12-ARA-36

ZOL-13-ARA-85

Collected from its tangled untidy web constructed between the lower vegetation in the forest

Image 71

72.

Pholcidae

Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775)

2F

ZOL-13-ARA-86

ZOL-13-ARA-87

Collected from its tangled web constructed between the lower vegetation in the forest

Image 72

73.

Pisauridae

Hygropoda cf. mahendriensis Vankhede, Keswani & Rajoria, 2013

3F, 2M

WILD-14-ARA-1277, WILD-14-ARA-1278, WILD-14-ARA-1279, WILD-14-ARA-1276, WILD-14-ARA-1293

Found near the streams of water, resting at periphery of stream and waiting for its prey (Hunting position)

Image 73

74.

Pisauridae

Nilus phipsoni (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898)

2F, 1M

ZOL-14-ARA-149

ZOL-14-ARA-150

ZOL-14-ARA-151

Found near the streams of water, resting on stones at the periphery of streams

Image 74

75.

Pisauridae

Perenethis venusta L. Koch, 1878

1M

ZOL-15-ARA-191

Found on the vegetation near the stream of water

Image 75

76.

Pisauridae

Pisaura podilensis Patel & Reddy, 1990

1F, 1M

ZOL-14-ARA-152

ZOL-15-ARA-192

Collected from the upper side of leaf near its nursery web

Image 76

77.

Prodidomidae

Prodidomus sp.

1M

ZOL-15-ARA-193

Accidentally found moving in the leaf litter and collected by handpick method

Image 77

78.

Salticidae

Epocilla sp.

1M

ZOL-14-ARA-153

Found in the underside of leaf

Image 78

79.

Salticidae

Harmochirus brachiatus (Thorell, 1877)

1M

ZOL-14-ARA-154

Found under the bark of Palm tree

Image 79

80.

Salticidae

Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826)  

2F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-88

ZOL-13-ARA-89

ZOL-13-ARA-90

Found underside of leaf

Image 80

81.

Salticidae

Hyllus semicupreus (Simon, 1885)

1F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-91

ZOL-13-ARA-92

Found underside of leaf

Image 81

82.

Salticidae

Marpissa tigrina Tikader, 1965

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-155

Found underside of leaf

Image 82

83.

Salticidae

Marpissa sp.

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-156

Collected from the lower vegetation by handpick method

Image 83

84.

Salticidae

Menemerus bivittatus (Dufour, 1831)

1F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-37

ZOL-12-ARA-38

Found underside of leaf

Image 84

85.

Salticidae

Myrmarachne tristis (Simon, 1882)

1F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-93

ZOL-13-ARA-94

Found underside of leaf

Image 85

86.

Salticidae

Myrmarachne sp.

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-39

Collected from its retreat constructed in a rolled leaf

Image 86

87.

Salticidae

Phintella vittata (C.L. Koch, 1846)

3F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-40

ZOL-13-ARA-95

ZOL-13-ARA-96

ZOL-12-ARA-41

Found underside of leaf

Image 87

88.

Salticidae

Plexippus paykulli (Audouin, 1826)

1F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-97

ZOL-13-ARA-98

Found wandering on the walls of huts in the village

Image 88

89.

Salticidae

Plexippus petersi (Karsch, 1878)

1F, 1M

ZOL-14-ARA-157

ZOL-13-ARA-99

Found wandering on the walls of huts in the village

Image 89

90.

Salticidae

Portia sp.

1M

ZOL-15-ARA-194

Observed wandering on the ground within the leaf litter

Image 90

91.

Salticidae

Rhene albigera (C.L. Koch, 1846)

1M

ZOL-15-ARA-195

Found underside of leaf

Image 91

92.

Salticidae

Stenaelurillus sp.

1F, 1M

ZOL-14-ARA-158

ZOL-14-ARA-159

Collected wandering on the ground and in the dry leaf litter

Image 92

93.

Salticidae

Telamonia dimidiata (Simon, 1899)

2F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-42

ZOL-13-ARA-100

ZOL-12-ARA-43

Found underside of leaf

Image 93

94.

Salticidae

Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846)

2F, 2M

ZOL-12-ARA-44

ZOL-13-ARA-101

ZOL-12-ARA-45

ZOL-13-ARA-102

Found underside of leaf

Image 94

95.

Scytodidae

Scytodes fusca Walckenaer, 1837

2F

ZOL-13-ARA-103

ZOL-13-ARA-104

Found underside of leaf

Image 95

96.

Scytodidae

Scytodes pallida Doleschall, 1859

1F

ZOL-14-ARA-160

Found inside the folded leaf probably resting during day time

Image 96

97.

Scytodidae

Scytodes thoracica (Latreille, 1802)

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-196

Found inside the folded leaf probably resting during day time

Image 97

98.

Scytodidae

Scytodes sp.

1F

ZOL-15-ARA-197

Found underside of leaf

Image 98

99.

Sicariidae

Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820)

2F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-105

ZOL-13-ARA-106

ZOL-14-ARA-161

Collected from the leaf litter and also from its web constructed in the crevices of mines walls

Image 99

100.

Sparassidae

Heteropoda bhaikakai Patel & Patel, 1973

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-46

Collected from the inner & outer walls of huts in the village, also seen in the leaf litter of Tectona grandis

Image 100

101.

Sparassidae

Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus, 1767)

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-47

Collected from the outer walls of huts in the village, also seen in the leaf litter of Tectona grandis

Image 101

102.

Sparassidae

Olios bhavnagarensis Sethi & Tikader, 1988

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-107

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 102

103.

Sparassidae

Olios gravelyi Sethi & Tikader, 1988

1F

ZOL-13-ARA-108

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 103

104.

Sparassidae

Olios milleti (Pocock, 1901)

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-48

Collected from the folded leaf

Image 104

105.

Sparassidae

Olios wroughtoni (Simon, 1897)

1M

ZOL-12-ARA-49

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 105

106.

Sparassidae

Olios sp.

1F

ZOL-12-ARA-50

Collected from the underside of leaf

Image 106

107.

Stenochilidae

Stenochilus hobsoni O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871

1M

ZOL-15-ARA-198

Collected by pitfall method. Probably inhabits in leaf litter

Image 107

108.

Tetragnathidae

Guizygiella indica (Tikader & Bal, 1980)

1F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-109

ZOL-13-ARA-110

Collected from its orb web constructed between lower branches of tree

Image 108

109.

Tetragnathidae

Guizygiella melanocrania (Thorell, 1887)

2F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-111

ZOL-14-ARA-162

ZOL-14-ARA-163

Collected from its orb web constructed between lower branches of tree

Image 109

110.

Tetragnathidae

Guizygiella shivui (Patel & Reddy, 1990)

2F, 1M

ZOL-13-ARA-112

ZOL-13-ARA-113

ZOL-13-ARA-114

Collected from its orb web constructed between lower branches of tree

Image 110

111.

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge decorata (Blackwall, 1864)

3F, 1M

ZOL-12-ARA-51

ZOL-12-ARA-52

ZOL-12-ARA-53

Collected from its web near the water stream