Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 April 2018 | 10(5): 11618–11635

 

 

 

 

Nesting pattern of birds in Jahangirnagar University Campus, Bangladesh

 

Israt Jahan 1, Sajeda Begum 2, Mohammad Mostafa Feeroz 3, Delip Kumar Das 4 & Ashis Kumar Datta 5

 

1,2,3,5 Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh

4 Department of Zoology (Wildlife and Biodiversity Conservation), Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh

1 israt.jebin@yahoo.com (corresponding author), 2 bsajeda@yahoo.com, 3 feerozmm@yahoo.com, 4 bisharga1095@gmail.com, 5 ashis1534@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

Abstract: Based on a study on nesting behavior conducted in Jahangirnagar University Campus between 2009 and 2011 brief descriptions are given of nest site preferences in a diverse habitat, variation in nest shape against height above ground, and materials used for constructing nests in different tree species.  The study found that April is the peak time for nesting due to food availability.  High competition for tree holes as nest sites forced some species to build nests in unusual sites, for example Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri, Asian Pied Starling Sturnus contra, Common Myna Acridotheres tristis, and Jungle Myna A. fuscus, Oriental Magpie-robin Copsychus saularis showed better adaptation to the campus environment than other birds.  Predation risk was found to be higher for non-hole nests than for hole nests.  To minimize predation pressure, birds were seen to adopt passive protection by making false nests and constructing well-camouflaged nests.  Besides predation, human disturbance was observed on low height nests in roadside vegetation resulting in breeding failure. Reducing human disturbance is needed if birds are to achieve better reproductive success in the campus.  The most commonly used trees were Albizia spp. (native or long naturalized species) whereas no nest was found in Eucalyptus spp. and only a few nests were found in Acacia moniliformes, both are exotic trees which have been planted in huge numbers in the campus, indicating that birds do not prefer exotic tree species for nesting.  It is recommended to plant more native tree species, which may also help birds to nest in usual sites rather than unusual sites (such as electrical pillars, electrical boxes, air conditioner boxes, and building holes).  Regular monitoring in support of native tree planting and raising awareness to reduce disturbance, could enhance the successful reproduction of birds in Jahangirnagar University Campus.  Finally, an update to the avifauna of the campus is presented, with 17 species added in this study or from other recent reports, bringing the total to 195 species, including one globally ‘Near Threatened’ species, the Brown-winged Kingfisher Pelargopsis amauroptera.

 

Keywords: Birds, nest, Jahangirnagar University, pattern, exotic, native.

 

 

 

 

doi: http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2799.10.5.11618-11635  |  ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CBDD575B-B7A3-48CA-AD56-254CB174615A

 

Editor: Hem Sagar Baral, School of Environmental Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury-Woodonga, Australia.            Date of publication: 26 April 2018 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # 2799 | Received 29 May 2017 | Final received 03 March 2018 | Finally accepted 30 March 2018

 

Citation: Jahan, I., S. Begum, M.M. Feeroz, D.K. Das & A.K. Datta (2018). Nesting pattern of birds in Jahangirnagar University Campus, Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(5): 11618–11635; http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2799.10.5.11618-11635

 

Copyright: © Jahan et al. 2018. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: None.

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: Thank Paul Thompson, Desmond Allen and Ihtisham Kabir for reviewing the manuscript. Thanks to Dr. Reza Khan, wildlife specialist of Dubai Government, Dr. Md. Kamrul Hasan, Dr. Md. Monirul H. Khan, Mr. S.M. Robiul Alam, Samiul Mohsanin, Naziat Afrin Mitul, Sumon Sarker, Shainy Mehzabin Tonny, Ateya Akhter, Anik Saha for their sincere co-operation in research work.

 

 

 

 

 

Birds are expert nest-builders among animals and they build their nests chiefly to protect their eggs and young from predators and from adverse weather during the breeding season, the most vulnerable period in the life cycle.  They make nests using many different materials (e.g., twigs, leaves, dry grass, fibers, feathers, etc.,) and in a bewildering variety of forms and locate them in more varied sites than other animals (Welty & Baptista 1988).  The adaptations of animals can only be fully understood by making observations in the natural environments in which they have evolved (Baker 1938; Lack 1965; Wesołowski 1983; Tomiałojcę et al. 1984).  As such, studies of a range of resident bird species in the diverse habitats of Jahangirnagar University Campus were conducted to investigate nesting patterns which have not been well documented before.

Jahangirnagar University Campus (JUC) is notable for the diversity of bird species found.  The richness of bird species in the campus is due to diverse habitats and limited human disturbance (Mohsanin & Khan 2009).  The diverse habitats of the campus provide a potential breeding ground for many resident birds (Feeroz et al. 1988; Khan et al. 1999; Begum et al. 1993, 1994, 2011; Begum 2001, 2002, 2003; Akhter et al. 2007; Sultana et al. 2004; Jahan et al. 2016).  A total of 180 species of birds were previously reported from JUC of which 74 species are breeding residents that nest to complete their breeding cycle in the university (Mohsanin & Khan 2009).  This study aimed to investigate the nesting pattern of different species over three years (2009–2011) and improve understanding of the adaptations of birds in JUC.  In addition an update to the avifaunal checklist of JUC is presented based on observations during this nest study and compilation of other data recorded by other bird watchers.

 

Methods

Study Area

The Jahangirnagar University Campus (90.259–90.2730N & 23.867–23.8980E) is located 32km northwest of Dhaka city in central Bangladesh, and is about 280ha in area (Fig. 1).  The area was formerly part of a vast tract of “Sal” Shorea robusta forest and is now dominated by secondary vegetation.  The campus comprises different habitats including wetlands, grasslands, open scrub jungle, cultivated land, woodland and human habitation.  There are monotypic plantations of medicinal plants and fruit trees.  The campus harbours 230 plant species belonging to 159 genera and 62 families (Hossain et al. 1995).  The wetlands consist of permanent water bodies and marshy areas, around 22ha, and support a large number of resident and migratory birds (Akhter et al. 2007).  In winter marshy areas are used as agricultural lands.  Grassland is found in the southwestern portion of the campus, dominated by the common sun grass Imperata cylindrica, mixed with diverse sedges and isolated patches of tall grasses, plants such as Cassia occidentalis, Croton banpiandianum, Desmodium triflorum, Mimosa pudica are common in this area.  Bushes are distributed in the northern, southern and eastern parts of the campus dominated by Ichnocarpus frutescens, Mimosa pudica, Panicum repens, Sida acuta and Urena lobata.  Open scrublands and woodlands are characterized by Acacia pinnata, Aegle marmelos, Syzygium cumini, Zizyphus sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, A. chaplasha, Acacia moniliformes, Eucalyptus sp., Mangifera indica, Tectona grandis, Swietenia mahagoni and Shorea robusta (Hossain et al. 1995).  The campus ground is slightly undulating and the soil is deep brown to yellowish-red due to high iron content.  All the large wetlands, together with the grasslands and bushes in the south and the woodlands in the central part of the campus serve as hotspots for feeding, roosting and nesting of birds (Mohsanin & Khan 2009).

The climate of JUC is characterized by three main seasons: summer (March–May), monsoon (June–October) and winter (November–February).  During the study period summer was warm, rainy and humid, like the monsoon, whereas winter was cool and dry.  April has the highest average temperature of 33.90C, whereas January has the lowest average temperature of 13.70C, humidity varied between 72.2% and 89.8%, and total annual rainfall was about 1,800mm (Department of Geography and Environment, Jahangirnagar University).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nesting data

Nesting was studied over three breeding seasons - 2009, 2010 and 2011.  The breeding season of most resident passerine birds in JUC is from January to August (Begum et at. 2011) while it is varied in non-passerine residents over the year (Begum 2003; Sultana et al. 2004; Akhter et al. 2007; Jahan et al. 2016).  Data was collected on daily walks through the campus using binoculars and telescope.  To find nests, birds’ movements were carefully observed in the field with special attention given to those birds carrying nest materials.  Nesting birds were observed from natural hides near the nesting tree by maintaining a sufficient distance away from the birds to minimize disturbance.  A small boat was used to search for kingfisher nests in the earthen banks of ponds.

The fieldwork was carried out between 06:00–18:00 hr.  Nesting materials were examined after the chicks successfully left the nest.  In hole nests, materials were examined by pulling them out, using a ladder where necessary, while non-hole nest materials were examined by taking down the nest using a ladder after completion of the breeding cycle.  The plant species on which nests were placed were also identified and recorded.

 

Bird diversity

The checklist of birds was updated by reviewing past records and adding some species that had not been reported in the previous checklist (Mohsanin & Khan 2009) using observations during this study and other reports received from bird watchers on the campus.  Only species with confirmed identification (using Grimmett et al. 1999a) are listed, and records of special note and associated identifications are briefly discussed.  Taxonomy and sequence follows HBW and BirdLife International (2016).

 

Results and Discussion

A total of 321 nests of 45 species belonging to 23 families were observed in the campus (Images 1–20).  The highest number of nests recorded were made by Asian Pied Starling Sturnus contra (n=68), followed by House Sparrow Passer domesticus (n=56) and Common Myna Acridotheres tristis (n=18).  The number of nests found varied by month: the highest number found was in April (n=96) while the lowest number found was in January (n=8).  This suggests that semi-arid conditions are suitable for breeding, and that nesting birds make use of local peaks of insect abundance before the onset of the monsoon in late May or early June, as parents need more insects to feed nestlings frequently at that time.  The pre-monsoon showers may influence the start of breeding activity (Kushlan 1983).  Cool and dry winters probably result in insufficient food (insects) for nesting at that time.  So, those birds that are not dependent on insects for food tend to nest in the dry season, e.g., Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii and kingfishers.

 

 

 

 

 

Nest site characteristics

Five types of nesting sites were recognized for nests in JUC.  Most of the species, about 71% (n=37), built nests on trees; 14% (n=8) in building spaces (roof, cornice, hole, crevice in wall, intersecting corner of building wall, ventilator); 6% (n=3) in earth banks of lakes or ponds; 6% (n=3) in electrical pillar, electrical box or air condition box; and 2% (n=1) on aquatic vegetation. Some species nested in more than one type of nest sites: Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri, Oriental Magpie-robin Copsychus saularis, Common Myna, Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus and Asian Pied Starling all were found building nests in tree holes and in building spaces.

Although most of the species built nests on trees, variation was seen in this - using tree top branches, forks in branches, peripheral branches, the centre of a tree, holes in tree trunks, bamboo bushes and crevices in tree trunk. Asian Pied Starling built their nests in different positions in trees including tree top, fork, periphery and centre of tree.  Oriental Magpie-robin and Great Tit Parus major built their nests both in tree trunk holes and crevices of tree logs.

Competition for nesting holes was seen among hole nesting birds such as Jungle Myna, Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker Dendrocopos macei, Coppersmith Barbet Psilopogon haemacephalus, Oriental Magpie-robin, and Great Tit.  A pair of Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker tried to oust a Great Tit pair from a nest hole during the nest building period.  A fight was observed among three species—Jungle Myna, Common Myna and Oriental Magpie-robin for nesting in the same tree hole and finally Common Myna succeeded in occupying that hole.  A month after the mynas completed their breeding cycle, Black-rumped Flameback Dinopium benghalense was found nesting in the same hole.  No other birds were seen fighting for the hole that time, presumably because the woodpecker has a stronger beak and other species avoided conflict with it.

A dearth of normal nesting sites may force birds to choose usual sites.  With Rose-ringed Parakeet, two nests were found in Albizia procera and Swietenia mahagoni trees, but two other nests were found in a ventilation hole in a building and in a crevice in a wall.  With Oriental Magpie-robin, out of 13 nests, six were found in tree holes the others were in building holes, in a hole in an electrical pillar, and in a hole just under the roof of a house. With the Common Myna, five out of 18 nests were found in tree holes, while the others were in building holes, in holes in electrical pillars, and in an electrical box.  With the Jungle Myna, one nest was in a tree hole, one in an air conditioner box, and one in the intersecting corner of a building.  With the Asian Pied Starling, 10 nests were found in various building spaces though the majority was on tree branches (Fig. 2).  The reason for choosing diverse nesting sites could be high competition for tree holes in the campus.  Nesting in varied locations by these birds showed they are better adapted to campus conditions than other birds.

Some birds were seen seeking passive protection during nesting. Yellow-footed Green Pigeon Treron phoenicopterus nests were found near the nest of a Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and a Red Collared Dove Streptopelia tranquebraica nest was found near an Ashy Wood Swallow Artamus fuscus nest, probably to benefit from protection by the other species because Black Drongo and Ashy Wood Swallow aggressively defend their nests from predators.

The habit of making false nests near the real nest was observed during the study.  For example, out of 33 nest holes made by Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis, 26 were false nests; White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus made three false nests near two real nests; and five false nests were found out of 17 nests of Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata.  Pied Kingfisher is known to make false nest holes to misguide predators and protect eggs (Cramp et al. 1988) from predators such as Bengal Monitor Varanus bengalensis, Yellow Monitor Varanus fasciatus, and Small Indian Mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus.  Bengal Monitor and Small Indian Mongoose were also seen attempting to predate on eggs of White-breasted Waterhen. Scaly-breasted Munia prefer nesting in Ixora sp., Araucaria cookie and Polyalthia longifolia at 2–7 m height, which could be attacked by mongoose, this species could also be vulnerable to local children who were seen to have killed Great Tit nestlings and stolen Red–vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer eggs during this study.  These threats may be reasons why munias build false nests, which are presumed to reduce risks from predation pressure and human disturbance.

 

 

 

Table 1. Nest structures recorded in different bird species

 

Nest structures

# Bird species

Bird species nesting

1. Tunnel-shaped

11

Black-rumped Flameback, Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker, Common Kingfisher, White-throated Kingfisher, Pied Kingfisher, Great Tit, Coppersmith Barbet, Rose-ringed Parakeet, Jungle Myna, Ashy Wood Swallow, Chestnut-tailed Starling

2. Domed-shaped

3

Greater Coucal, Asian Pied Starling, Scaly-breasted Munia

3. Shallow cup-shaped

11

White-breasted Waterhen, Brahminy Kite, House Crow, Large-billed Crow, Rufous Treepie, Indian Pond Heron, Rock Pigeon, Spotted Dove, Red Collared Dove, Yellow-footed Green-pigeon, Common Myna

4. Deep cup-shaped

12

Long-tailed Shrike, Black-hooded Oriole, Small Minivet, Black Drongo, Orange-headed Thrush, Red-vented Bulbul, Jungle Babbler, Striated Babbler, Black-headed Cuckooshrike, Common Iora, Common Woodshrike, Oriental White-eye

5. Flat-shaped

2

Bronze-winged Jacana, Red-wattled Lapwing

6. Building hole

6

Rose-ringed Parakeet, Oriental Magpie-robin, House Swift, House Sparrow, Common Myna, Jungle Myna

7. Hanging nest

3

Purple Sunbird, Asian Palm Swift, Common Tailorbird

 

 

 

 

Nest structure

It was observed that 33% of nesting species preferred nesting in holes (in trees, buildings, electrical pillars and earth bank) and two-thirds of species were non-hole nesters (Table 3).  Only the Common Myna makes both types of nests; this species used various materials when constructing nests in electrical boxes and among tree branches, but gathered fewer materials when it nested in holes (tree, building, and electrical pillar).  Non-hole nests were of seven types of which a deep cup-shaped nest was more common, followed by tunnel-shaped nests, shallow-cup shaped nests, domed-shaped nests, flat-shaped nests, hanging nests on tree leaves and nests in building hole (Table 1).

 

Nest height

Species nesting on the ground or on floating vegetation built their nests lower than other species.  Kingfisher nests of all species were excavated 1–2 m above water surface in earthbanks, while Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus nests were recorded on floating aquatic vegetation.  Excluding these species, the highest recorded nest was a Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus nest (33m), followed by a Rose-ringed Parakeet and a Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda (32m) while the lowest (1m) was a Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus nest.

Human disturbance was observed at lower height (1–5 m) nests in addition to predation.  Risk from predation and disturbance was estimated to be double for low height nests compared with nests above 5m.  Other than this factor, variation in nest height might occur due to availability of suitable sites and choices by birds to minimize conflicts within and between species.

Predation pressure was observed in all heights from low to high above ground, but was lower for hole nests than non-hole nests.  Nest content is more visible to predators from a long distance in non-hole nests.  The avian predators in this study (Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus, Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela, Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos, House Crow C. splendens and Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda) were seen attacking Blue Rock Pigeons, Black Drongo, Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus, Red-vented Bulbul and Indian Pond Heron nests during nesting.  Rufous Treepie was seen attacking a Black-hooded Oriole Oriolus xanthornus nest and grabbing the eggs.  Among hole nesters, Great Tit nests were attacked by House Crow and Oriental Magpie-robin during incubation.  Use of false nests by some species to divert predators was recorded.  The terrestrial predators active close to ponds were Bengal Monitor, Yellow Monitor, Small Indian Mongoose and various snake species, which normally attempt to predate on kingfisher nests, and White-breasted Waterhen nests.

 

Nesting materials

In nest construction, 33 types of materials were recorded of which twigs were the most used materials (27 species), other materials found in nests included: leaves, grass blades, fibers, feathers, dry sticks, cobwebs, straw, creepers, saliva of birds, cotton, plastic or polythene, wool, human hair, papers, grass roots, coir, rubbish, bones of fishes, rootlets, barks, dry paddy, lichens, animal fur, rope, net, pieces of cloth, ribbons, glossy chocolate paper, moss, honeycombs and aquatic weeds.

Oriental Magpie-robin used twigs, roots, dry grass blades and fibers in tree hole nests, but used straw, plant fibers, grass blades, coir, wool, human hair and cotton in building hole nests including a hole just under the roof of a house.  The Jungle Myna gathered twigs, roots, feathers and grasses in tree hole nest but used numerous pieces of paper in an air conditioner box and used twigs, dead leaves, papers and miscellaneous rubbish materials when nesting in the intersecting corner of a building.

The Common Myna used bamboo sticks, straw, fine twigs, leaves, feathers, a piece of plastic and glossy chocolate wrapper when making a nest in electrical boxes and tree branches while it gathered twigs, leaves, and straw for nesting in tree holes, building holes and electrical pillar holes.  The availability and abundance of materials near nest sites is probably important in the choices made by the birds.

Three Yellow-footed Green Pigeon nests were found: two in two separate Albizia procera, and one in a Dalbergia sissoo.  Relatively more twigs were used to make nests in Albizia procera, whilst more leaves were used when constructing the nest in Dalbergia sissoo.  This was probably to better camouflage the nests, because the former tree had more twigs and the latter had more foliage.  Well-camouflaged nests were built by many species of birds in the campus and were difficult to detect during study time, e.g., Small Minivet, Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus, Bronze-winged Jacana.  Better nest camouflage is a strategy evolved by birds to avoid predators.

 

Nest host plant

Nests were found in 33 tree species, of which Albizia sp. was the most frequently used tree hosting 13 species of bird (including Black-rumped Flameback, Large-billed Crow, Black Drongo, Oriental Magpie-robin, Asian Pied Starling), other trees found hosting nests included: Azadirachta indica, Bambusa sp., Ficus benghalensis, Delonix regia, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Tectona grandis, Terminalia catappa, Cocos nucifera, Araucaria cookie, Anthocephalus chinensis, Swietenia macrophylla, Shorea robusta Lagerstroemia indica, Alstonia scholaris, Roystonea regia, Spondias cythera, Leucaena leucocephala, Caryota urens, Zizyphus mauritiana, Areca catechu, Magnolia grandiflora, and Carica papaya (Table 2).

Albizia spp. are common in the campus, which might account for the numbers of nests found in these trees, but no nest was found in Eucalyptus sp. (exotic trees) and only a few nests were found in Acacia moniliformes (exotic tree), yet these have been planted in huge numbers in the campus. This indicates that birds do not prefer exotic tree species for nesting. Also the habit of nesting in unusual places (crevices in building walls, intersecting corners of buildings, electrical pillar holes, electrical boxes and air conditioner boxes) might be due to insufficient suitable large trees in the campus, so it is recommended to allow native trees to grow to maturity and to plant more native trees which may help birds to avoid nesting in unusual sites.

The study found that birds built nests in various positions in large canopy trees mostly to avoid predation, which was also reported by Gajera et al. (2009), but in this study birds were found to prefer roadside large trees for nesting despite human disturbance due to nest visibility.  A total of 99 nests were found in roadside vegetation during the study. Risks were higher for nests at low height (2–4 m), yet the Great Tit preferred to make its nest in the same tree species at a low height in different years, and was vulnerable to predation by local children.  Disturbance could be reduced by raising awareness among local people, which might enhance reproductive success of birds in Jahangirnagar University Campus.

 

Bird Diversity

A total of 17 bird species were added (Table 4) to the existing avifaunal checklist (Mohsanin & Khan 2009) bringing the total to 195 species confirmed for JUC of which as many as 76 species are breeding residents.

Out of the newly recorded species, one species is globally ‘Near Threatened’ Brown-winged Kingfisher Pelargopsis amauroptera (BirdLife International 2017).  This bird was observed in three winters from 2013 to 2015 at the same pond near the Wildlife Rescue Centre.  JUC is over 200km as the kingfisher flies from the Sundarbans - the closest area of its usual mangrove habitat.  A Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis nest was first sighted in 2016 on aquatic vegetation near the gymnasium of JUC, and the birds hatched young.  Lineated Barbet Psilopogon lineatus was considered a non-breeding resident in the previous list but an active nest was found in 2014.  Nesting Lineated Barbet and Little Grebe added with the previous list gives a total 76 of breeding species in JUC.

The JUC supports several globally threatened and near-threatened birds.  Three birds—Grey-headed Fish-eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus (Near Threatened), Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga (Vulnerable) and Red-breasted Parakeet Psittacula alexandri (Near Threatened)—were seen many times during the study period.  In addition, there are several historic records of species that are now globally threatened or near-threatened in the previous avifaunal checklist by Mohsanin & Khan (2009): Baer’s Pochard Aythya baeri (Critically Endangered, one in 2005), Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus (Vulnerable), White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis (Critically Endangered), Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (Near Threatened) and Laggar Falcon Falco jugger (Near Threatened), but these are unlikely to occur now with declines in global populations and changes in campus habitat. Detailed observational records of the Pallid Harrier and Laggar Falcon need to be published as they are both considered rarities in Bangladesh.  There are also at least two species previously listed that should be considered unconfirmed and are not included in the total of 194 species: Long-billed Plover Charadrius placidus (which has only three national records, most recent being 1991 (Thompson et al. 1993; Thompson & Johnson 2003), is difficult to identify, and for which no details of the JU sighting are available) and Solitary Snipe Gallinago solitaria (a species which winters at high altitudes although sometimes down to 950m (Grimmett et al. 1999b) and which has never been confirmed in Bangladesh, and for which no details of the JUC claim are available).

Although the previous checklist and this study depict the campus as a good reservoir for avifaunal species, birds are facing threats from continuous habitat loss (Mohsanin & Khan 2009).  Conversion of bushy areas and grassland  for construction of new buildings converts threatens birds dependent on those habitats such as Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malarbaricus which is considered a nationally threatened species (IUCN Bangladesh 2015).  Attention is also needed to protect wetland habitat, which supports thousands of migratory ducks every year on the campus.  Only two lakes are safe for waterbirds, the others are now used for fish culture for certain times of the year which destroys suitable habitat for migratory ducks, this has resulted a decline in wintering species’ diversity.  Only three species of ducks - Fulvous Whistling-duck Dendrocygna bicolor, Lesser Whistling-duck D. javanica , and Northern Pintail Anas acuta were seen in the last five years up to 2016.

This study concludes that the nesting habits and diversity of bird species in the campus are due to its diversified habitats.  Many bird species, however, face threat due to habitat loss and human disturbance, regular monitoring and immediate habitat protection would enhance the successful reproduction as well as richness of birds in Jahangirnagar University Campus.  More research and a habit of publishing the observations made by different researchers could also help protect the avifaunal wealth in JUC.

 

 

 

Table 2. Tree species used for nesting by different bird species trees

 

Tree species    

Coverage of the area by the tree

# Bird species

Bird species nesting

Azadirachta indica

C

5

Black-rumped Flameback, Oriental Magpie-robin, Asian Pied Starling, Chestnut-tailed Starling, Jungle Myna

Albizia sp.

C

13

Black-rumped Flameback, Large-billed Crow, Black Drongo, Oriental Magpie-robin, Asian Pied Starling, Chestnut-tailed Starling, Rose-ringed Parakeet, Yellow-footed Green-pigeon, Red Collared Dove, Rufous Treepie, Ashy Wood Swallow, Coppersmith Barbet, Common Woodshrike

Anthocephalus chinensis

UC

1

Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker

Acacia moniliformes

A

6

Spotted Dove, Brahminy Kite, Black Drongo, Oriental Magpie-robin, Asian Pied Starling

Artocarpus heterophyllus

C

4

House Crow, Oriental Magpie-robin, Asian Pied Starling, Red-vented Bulbul

Alstonia scholaris

R

1

House Crow

Areca catechu

UC

1

Jungle Babbler

Araucaria cookii

R

2

Asian Pied Starling, Scaly-breasted Munia

Bambusa sp.

C

2

Greater Coucal, Black-hooded Oriole

Borassus flabellifer

UC

1

Asian Palm Swift

Casuarina sp

UC

3

House Crow, Large-billed Crow, Asian Pied Starling

Carica papaya

C

1

Jungle Babbler

Cocos nucifera

C

2

Oriental Magpie-robin, Common Myna

Caryota urens

UC

1

Common Myna

Delbergia sissoo

C

6

Yellow-footed Green-pigeon, Long-tailed Shrike, Small Minivet, Black Drongo, Asian Pied Starling, Common Myna

Delonix regia

C

2

Red Collared Dove, Asian Pied Starling

Ficus benghalensis

UC

2

Spotted Dove, Asian Pied Starling

Ixora sp.,

C

5

Red-vented Bulbul, Striated Babbler, Purple Sunbird, Scaly-breasted Munia, Common Tailorbird

Lagerstroemia speciosa

UC

2

White-breasted Waterhen, Striated Babbler

Leucaena leucocephala.

R

1

Chestnut-tailed Starling

Lagerstroemia indica

R

1

Great Tit

Mangifera indica

C

4

Long-tailed Shrike, Red-vented Bulbul, Jungle Babbler, India Pond Heron

Magnolia grandiflora

UC

1

Jungle Babbler

Ptearigota alata

UC

1

Common Tailorbird

Polyalthia longifolia

C

9

Spotted Dove, Brahminy Kite, House Crow, Large-billed Crow, Asian Pied Starling, Common Myna, Red-vented Bulbul, Jungle Babbler, Scaly-breasted Munia

Roystonea regia

UC

1

Large-billed Crow

Swietenia mahagoni

C

10

Black-rumped Flameback, Red Collared Dove, Oriental Magpie-robin, Asian Pied Starling, Common Myna, Red-vented Bulbul, Coppersmith Barbet, Black-headed Cuckooshrike, Common Iora, Oriental White- eye, Rose-ringed Parakeet

Swietenia macrophylla

UC

1

Red Collared Dove

Shorea robusta

C

1

Red Collared Dove

Spondias cythera

UC

1

Black-hooded Oriole

Tectona grandis

C

2

House Crow, Asian Pied Starling

Terminalia catappa

UC

2

Orange-headed Thrush, Red-vented Bulbul

Zizyphus mauritiana

UC

1

Red-vented Bulbul

 

The relative abundance of the trees used by birds was assessed as: A: Abundant (present in 75–100 % of area), C: Common (present in 50–74 % of area), UC: Uncommon (present in 25–49 % of area), and R: Rare (present in <25% of area).

 

 

 

Table 3. List of nesting birds observed in Jahangirnagar University campus and their nest type.

 

 

Species name & Scientific name

Total nest

Non-hole nest

Hole nest

Nest materials

 

Picidae

 

 

 

 

1

Black-rumped Flameback Dinopium benghalense

3

 

+

 

2

Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker Dendrocopos macei

1

 

+

 

 

Megalaimidae

 

 

 

 

3

Coppersmith Barbet Psilopogon haemacephalus

3

 

+

 

 

Alcedinidae

 

 

 

 

4

Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis

1

 

+

Litter of fish

 

Dalcelonidae

 

 

 

 

5

White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis

3

 

+

Litter of fish

 

Cerylidae

 

 

 

 

6

Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis

7

 

+

Litter of fish

 

Centropodidae

 

 

 

 

7

Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis

2

+

 

Grass, twigs, bamboo leaves & feathers

 

Psittacidae

 

 

 

 

8

Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri

4

 

+

 

 

Columbidae

 

 

 

 

9

Rock Pigeon Columba livia

6

+

 

Twigs & sticks

10

Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis

7

+

 

Twigs, grass blades, grass stem, creeper & dry leaves

11

Red Collared Dove Streptopelia tranquebraica

7

+

 

Twigs, grass roots, grass stems, creeper, dry grasses & feathers

12

Yellow-footed Green-pigeon Treron phoenicopterus

2

+

 

Twigs, grass stems, dry grasses, dry leaves & feathers

 

Apodidae

 

 

 

 

13

Asian Palm Swift Cypsiurus balasiensis

2

+

 

Saliva & feathers

14

House Swift Apus affinis

3

 

+

Grass, straw, feathers & papers

 

Rallidae

 

 

 

 

15

White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus

2

+

 

Dry leaves and twigs of Acacia, dry stems of Assamlata (Mikania cordata), dry paddy, Few grass blade & leaves

 

Jacanidae

 

 

 

 

16

Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus

2

+

 

Stem & leaves of Salvinia cucullata, Eichhornia crassipes & Cyperus sp aquatic weeds & Green grasses

 

Charadriidae

 

 

 

 

17

Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus

2

+

 

Small concrete pieces

 

Accipitridae

 

 

 

 

18

Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus

3

+

 

Sticks, twigs, Wool, skin, rags & green leaves

 

Ardeidae

 

 

 

 

19

Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii

17

+

 

Sticks, twigs & leaves

 

Laniidae

 

 

 

 

20

Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach

2

+

 

Grass blades, twigs, plastic web, grasses & fibers

 

Corvidae

 

 

 

 

21

Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda

2

+

 

Twigs, leaves & rootlets

22

House Crow Corvus splendens

9

+

 

Sticks, twigs & fibers

23

Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos

5

+

 

Sticks, twigs, grass blades, leaves, coir, wool, fibers, grass roots

24

Ashy Wood Swallow Artamus fuscus

1

 

+

Twigs, grass roots, dry leaves, feathers & fibers

25

Black-hooded Oriole Oriolus xanthornus

3

+

 

Bamboo leaves, grass blades, twigs, cob web, Cotton, plant fibers & feathers

26

Black-headed Cuckooshrike Coracina melanoptera

1

+

 

Twigs, rootlets, cob web, leaves & fibers

27

Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus

2

+

 

Bark, stems, lichens, fine roots, dry leaves, saliva & cob web

28

Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus

8

+

 

Twigs, grass blades, leaves, human hair, animal fur, plant fibers, saliva, cobweb & fibers

29

Common Iora Aegithina tiphia

1

+

 

Grass blade, Saliva, cobweb & fibers

30

Common Woodshrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus

2

+

 

leaves, twigs, grass blade, saliva, cobweb & fibers

 

Muscicapidae

 

 

 

 

31

Orange-headed Thrush Zoothera citrina

3

+

 

Twigs, grass blade, sticks & dry leaves

32

Oriental Magpie-robin Copsychus saularis

13

 

+

Twigs, roots, grass blade, straw, human hair, coir, fibers, wool & cotton

 

Sturnidae

 

 

 

 

33

Asian Pied Starling Sturnus contra

68

+

 

Grass blades, twigs, straw, leaves, plastic, rope, net, ribbons, rubbish materials,

Piece of cloth, paper and cotton

34

Chestnut-tailed Starling Sturnus malabaricus

6

 

+

Straw, twigs, leaves & feathers

35

Common Myna Acridotheres tristis*

18

+

+

Twigs, sticks, straw, leaves, rubbish materials fibers, feathers, plastic & glossy chocolate wrapper

36

Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus

3

 

+

Twigs, roots, dead leaves, grass blade, feathers, rubbish materials, sometime use only pieces of paper

 

Paridae

 

 

 

 

37

Great Tit Parus major

3

 

+

Twigs, moss, wool, hair & feathers

 

Pycnonotidae

 

 

 

 

38

Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer

9

+

 

Twigs, grass blade, leaves, coir, human hair, saliva, cobweb, fibers (Palm) & cotton

 

Zosteropidae

 

 

 

 

39

Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus

2

+

 

Twigs, creeper, grass blade, coir, saliva,

cobweb & Plant fibers

 

Sylviidae

 

 

 

 

40

Common Tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius

3

+

 

Leaves, Twigs, grass blade, cotton, fibers, plastic, coir & cobweb

41

Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus

6

+

 

Grass blades, twigs, grass stems, creeper, leaves, plastic & Plant fibers

42

Striated Babbler Turdoides earlei

2

+

 

Twigs, creepers, Grass blade & leaves

 

Nectariniidae

 

 

 

 

43

Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus

3

+

 

Bark, leaves, fibers, saliva, honey combs & cobweb

 

Passeridae

 

 

 

 

44

House Sparrow Passer domesticus

56

 

+

Straw, grass blades, rubbish materials & Pieces of papers

45

Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata

12

+

 

Grass blades, plant fibers & feathers

 

Total

321

31

15

 

*Common Myna prefer both type of nest

 

 

 

Table 4. Annotated Checklist of bird species recorded in Jahangirnagar University Campus

 

 

Common name

Scientific name

Breeding status

1. Anatidae

1

Fulvous Whistling-duck

Dendrocygna bicolor

NBr

2

Lesser Whistling-duck

Dendrocygna javanica

Br

3

African Comb Duck

Sarkidiornis melanotos

NBr

4

Cotton Pygmy-goose

Nettapus coromandelianus

NBr

5

Baer’s Pochard Ϯ

Aythya baeri

Mw

6

Ferruginous Duck

Aythya nyroca

Mw

7

Tufted Duck

Aythya fuligula

Mw

8

Garganey

Spatula querquedula

Mw

9

Northern Shoveler

Spatula clypeata

Mw

10

Gadwall

Mareca strepera

Mw

11

Northern Pintail

Anas acuta

Mw

2. Podicipedidae

12

Little Grebe1

Tachybaptus ruficollis

Br

3. Columbidae

13

Rock Pigeon

Columba livia

Br

14

Oriental Turtle-dove2

Streptopelia orientalis

NBr

15

Eurasian Collared-dove

Streptopelia decaocto

Br

16

Red Turtle-dove

Streptopelia tranquebarica

Br

17

Eastern Spotted Dove

Spilopelia chinensis

Br

18

Grey-capped Emerald Dove

Chalcophaps indica

NBr

19

Yellow-footed Green-pigeon

Treron phoenicopterus

Br

4. Caprimulgidae

20

Large-tailed Nightjar

Caprimulgus macrurus

NBr

5. Apodidae

21

Asian Palm-swift

Cypsiurus balasiensis

Br

22

Pacific Swift

Apus pacificus

Mw

23

House Swift

Apus nipalensis

Br

6. Centropodidae

24

Greater Coucal

Centropus sinensis

Br

25

Lesser Coucal

Centropus bengalensis

NBr

7. Cuculidae

26

Green-billed Malkoha

Phaenicophaeus tristis

NBr

27

Jacobin Cuckoo

Clamator jacobinus

Br, Ms

28

Western koel

Eudynamys scolopaceus

Br

29

Plaintive Cuckoo

Cacomantis merulinus

Br, Ms

30

Common Hawk-cuckoo

Hierococcyx varius

Br, Ms

31

Indian Cuckoo

Cuculus micropterus

Br, Ms

32

Common Cuckoo

Cuculus canorus

NBr, Ms

8. Rallidae

33

White-breasted Waterhen

Amaurornis phoenicurus

Br

34

Watercock3

Gallicrex cinerea

NBr

35

Purple Swamphen4

Porphyrio porphyrio

NBr

36

Common Moorhen

Gallinula chloropus

NBr

37

Common Coot

Fulica atra

Mw

9. Ciconiidae

38

Lesser Adjutant Ϯ

Leptoptilos javanicus

NBr

39

Asian Openbill

Anastomus oscitans

NBr

10. Ardeidae

40

Yellow Bittern

Ixobrychus sinensis

Br

41

Cinnamon Bittern

Ixobrychus cinnamomeus

Br

42

Black-crowned Night Heron

Nycticorax nycticorax

NBr

43

Green-backed Heron

Butorides striata

Br

44

Indian Pond-heron

Ardeola grayii

Br

45

Cattle Egret

Bubulcus ibis

NBr

46

Grey Heron

Ardea cinerea

NBr

47

Great White Egret

Ardea alba

NBr

48

Intermediate Egret

Ardea intermedia

NBr

49

Little Egret

Egretta garzetta

NBr

11. Phalacrocoracidae

50

Little Cormorant

Microcarbo niger

NBr

12. Anhingidae

51

Oriental Darter

Anhinga melanogaster

NBr

13. Charadriidae

52

Little Ringed Plover

Charadrius dubius

Mw

53

Lesser Sandplover

Charadrius mongolus

Mw

54

Yellow-wattled Lapwing

Vanellus malarbaricus

Br

55

Grey-headed Lapwing

Vanellus cinereus

Mw

56

Red-wattled Lapwing

Vanellus indicus

Br

14. Rostratulidae

57

Greater Painted-snipe

Rostratula benghalensis

Br

15. Jacanidae

58

Bronze-winged Jacana

Metopidius indicus

Br

59

Pheasant-tailed Jacana17

Hydrophasianus chirurgus

NBr

16. Scolopacidae

60

Temminck’s Stint

Calidris temminckii

Mw

61

Little Stint

Calidris minuta

Mw

62

Pintail Snipe

Gallinago stenura

Mw

63

Common Snipe

Gallinago gallinago

Mw

64

Common Sandpiper

Actitis hypoleucos

Mw

65

Green Sandpiper

Tringa ochropus

Mw

66

Common Greenshank5

Tringa nebularia

Mw

67

Wood Sandpiper

Tringa glareola

Mw

68

Marsh Sandpiper6

Tringa stagnatilis

Mw

17. Turnicidae

69

Yellow-legged Buttonquail7

Turnix tanki

NBr

18. Tytonidae

70

Common Barn-owl

Tyto alba

Br

19. Strigidae

71

Brown Boobook

Ninox scutulata

Br

72

Spotted Owlet

Athene brama

Br

73

Collared Scops-owl

Otus lettia

Br

74

Brown Fish-owl

Ketupa zeylonensis

Br

20. Accipitridae

75

Osprey

Pandion haliaetus

Mw

76

Black-winged Kite

Elanus caeruleus

NBr

77

Oriental Honey Buzzard

Pernis ptilorhyncus

NBr

78

Crested Serpent-eagle

Spilornis cheela

NBr

79

White-rumped Vulture Ϯ

Gyps bengalensis

NBr

80

Changeable Hawk-eagle8

Nisaetus cirrhatus

NBr

81

Greater Spotted Eagle

Clanga clanga

Mw

82

Steppe Eagle

Aquila nipalensis

Mw

83

Booted Eagle9

Hieraaetus pennatus

Mw

84

Pallid Harrier Ϯ

Circus macrourus

Mw

85

Shikra

Accipiter badius

NBr

86

Besra10

Accipiter virgatus

NBr

87

Eurasian Sparrowhawk

Accipiter nisus

Mw

88

Pallas’s Fish-eagle

Haliaeetus leucoryphus

NBr

89

Grey-headed Fish-eagle

Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus

NBr

90

Brahminy Kite

Haliastur indus

Br

91

Black Kite

Milvus migrans

NBr

92

Eurasian Buzzard

Buteo buteo

Mw

93

Long-legged Buzzard

Buteo rufinus

Mw

21. Upupidae

94

Common Hoopoe

Upupa epops

NBr

22. Meropidae

95

Asian Green Bee-eater

Merops orientalis

NBr

96

Chestnut-headed Bee-eater

Merops leschenaulti

NBr

23. Coraciidae

97

Indian Roller

Coracias benghalensis

NBr

24. Alcedinidae

98

Common Kingfisher

Alcedo atthis

Br

25. Cerylidae

99

Pied Kingfisher

Ceryle rudis

Br

26. Dalcelonidae

100

Stork-billed Kingfisher

Pelargopsis capensis

Br

101

Brown-winged Kingfisher11

Pelargopsis amauroptera

NBr

102

White-throated Kingfisher

Halcyon smyrnensis

Br

27. Megalaimidae

103

Coppersmith Barbet

Psilopogon haemacephala

Br

104

Lineated Barbet

Psilopogon lineatus

Br

28. Picidae

105

Eurasian Wryneck

Jynx torquilla

Mw

106

Black-rumped Flameback

Dinopium benghalense

Br

107

Rufous Woodpecker

Micropternus brachyurus

Br

108

Streak-throated Woodpecker

Picus xanthopygaeus

Br

109

Grey-capped Woodpecker

Picoides canicapillus

Br

110

Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker

Dendrocopos macei

Br

29. Falconidae

111

Common Kestrel

Falco tinnunculus

Mw

112

Laggar Falcon Ϯ

Falco jugger

Mw

30. Psittacidae

113

Red-breasted Parakeet

Psittacula alexandri

NBr

114

Rose-ringed Parakeet

Psittacula krameri

Br

31. Oriolidae

115

Indian Golden Oriole

Oriolus kundoo

NBr

116

Black-naped Oriole12

Oriolus chinensis

Mw

117

Black-hooded Oriole

Oriolus xanthornus

Br

32. Campephagidae

118

Small Minivet

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus

Br

119

Rosy Minivet

Pericrocotus roseus

Mw

120

Indian (Large) Cuckoo-shrike

Coracina macei

Br

121

Black-headed Cuckooshrike

Lalage melanoptera

Br

33. Artamidae

122

Ashy Woodswallow

Artamus fuscus

Br

34. Vangidae

123

Common Woodshrike

Tephrodornis pondicerianus

Br

35. Aegithinidae

124

Common Iora

Aegithina tiphia

Br

36. Dicruridae

125

Black Drongo

Dicrurus macrocercus

Br

126

Ashy Drongo

Dicrurus leucophaeus

Mw

127

Bronzed Drongo

Dicrurus aeneus

NBr

128

Lesser Racquet-tailed Drongo

Dicrurus remifer

NBr

37. Laniidae

129

Brown Shrike

Lanius cristatus

Mw

130

Long-tailed Shrike

Lanius schach

Br

131

Grey-backed Shrike

Lanius tephronotus

Mw

38. Corvidae

132

Rufous Treepie

Dendrocitta vagabunda

Br

133

House Crow

Corvus splendens

Br

134

Large-billed Crow

Corvus macrorhynchos

Br

39. Stenostiridae

135

Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher

Culicicapa ceylonensis

Mw

40. Monarchidae

136

Black-naped Monarch

Hypothymis azurea

NBr

137

Indian Paradise-flycatcher

Terpsiphone paradisi

NBr

41. Paridae

138

Great Tit

Parus major

Br

42. Alaudidae

139

Bengal Bush Lark

Mirafra assamica

Br

43. Cisticolidae

140

Zitting Cisticola

Cisticola juncidis

Br

141

Grey-breasted Prinia

Prinia hodgsonii

Br

142

Plain Prinia

Prinia inornata

NBr

143

Common Tailorbird

Orthotomus sutorius

Br

44. Acrocephalidae

144

Thick-billed Warbler

Acrocephalus aedon

Mw

145

Blyth’s Reed-warbler

Acrocephalus dumetorum

Mw

146

Clamorous Reed-warbler

Acrocephalus stentoreus

Mw

45. Hirundinidae

147

Red-rumped Swallow

Hirundo daurica

Mw

148

Barn Swallow

Hirundo rustica

Mw

46. Pycnonotidae

149

Red-whiskered Bulbul

Pycnonotus jocosus

NBr

150

Red-vented Bulbul

Pycnonotus cafer

Br

47. Phylloscopidae

151

Dusky Warbler

Phylloscopus fuscatus

Mw

152

Siberian Chiffchaff

Phylloscopus tristis

Mw

153

Greenish Warbler

Phylloscopus trochiloides

Mw

48. Zosteropisae

154

Oriental White-eye

Zosterops palpebrosus

Br

49. Leiothrichidae

155

Striated Babbler

Turdoides earlei

Br

156

Jungle Babbler

Turdoides striata

Br

157

Rufous-necked Laughingthrush

Garrulax ruficollis

NBr

50. Sturnidae

158

Asian Pied Starling

Sturnus contra

Br

159

Brahminy Starling

Sturnus pagodarum

NBr

160

Chestnut-tailed Starling

Sturnus malabaricus

Br

161

Common Myna

Acridotheres tristis

Br

162

Bank Myna

Acridotheres ginginianus

NBr

163

Jungle Myna

Acridotheres fuscus

Br

51. Muscicapidae

164

Plain-backed Thrush

Zoothera mollissima

Mw

165

Blue Rock Thrush

Monticola solitarius

Mw

166

Oriental Magpie-robin

Copsychus saularis

Br

167

Dark-sided Flycatcher

Muscicapa sibirica

Mw

168

Verditer Flycatcher

Eumyias thalassina

Mw

169

Blue-throated Blue Flycatcher

Cyornis rubeculoides

Mw

170

Siberian Rubythroat

Calliope pectoralis

Mw

171

Taiga Flycatcher

Ficedula albicilla

Mw

172

Asian Brown Flycatcher13

Muscicapa dauurica

Mw

173

Brown-breasted Flycatcher14

Muscicapa muttui

Mw

174

Black Redstart

Phoenicurus ochruros

Mw

175

Eurasian Stone Chat

Saxicola torquatus

Mw

52. Turdidae

176

Scaly Thrush15

Zoothera dauma

Mw

177

Orange-headed Thrush

Zoothera citrina

Br

53. Dicaeidae

178

Pale-billed Flowerpecker

Dicaeum erythrorynchos

Br

54. Nectariniidae

179

Purple-rumped Sunbird

Leptocoma zeylonica

Br

180

Purple Sunbird

Cinnyris asiaticus

Br

55. Ploceidae

181

Baya Weaver

Ploceus philippinus

NBr

56. Estrildidae

182

White-throated Munia

Lonchura malabarica

NBr

183

White-rumped Munia16

Lonchura striata

NBr

184

Scaly-breasted Munia

Lonchura punctulata

Br<