Journal of Threatened Taxa | | 26 October 2016 | 8(12): 9467–9472






New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Bhutan


Tshering Nidup 1, Thinley Gyeltshen 2, P. Girish Kumar 3, Wim Klein 4 & Phurpa Dorji 5


1,2,4 School of Life Sciences, Sherubtse College, Royal University of Bhutan, Trashigang, Bhutan

3 Western Ghat Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Kozhikode, Kerala 673006, India

4 Honorary Research Associate, Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands

1 (corresponding author), 2, 3, 4, 5





doi: | ZooBank:


Editor: Nguyen Thi Phuong Lien, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam. Date of publication: 26 October 2016 (online & print)



Manuscript details: Ms # 2774 | Received 07 May 2016 | Final received 06 October 2016 | Finally accepted 10 October 2016


Citation: Nidup, T., T. Gyeltshen, P.G. Kumar, W. Klein & P. Dorji (2016). New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(12): 9467–9472;


Copyright: © Nidup et al. 2016. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.


Funding: Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation (BTFEC) and

Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden, Netherlands.


Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.


Acknowledgements: Acknowledgement is to National Biodiversity Centre (NBC), Bhutan for coordinating the invertebrate documentation project and Mr. Tshering Wangdi, Director, Sherubtse College, Royal University of Bhutan, for supporting us during the field work.



Abstract: A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855), Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787), D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790), E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan.


Keywords: Bhutan, Eumeninae, new records, Vespidae.


Abbreviation: BMNH - British Museum of Natural History; IEBR - Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi, Vietnam; SNHM - Sherubtse Natural History Museum, Trashigang, Bhutan; NHMB - Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, Switzerland; NHM - The Natural History Museum, London.





Potter wasps belong to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae. Eumeninae is a widely distributed subfamily with more than 150 genera (Srinivasan & Kumar 2010). It is differentiated from other subfamilies of Vespidae in having parategula in most species, claws usually bifid and posterior lingual plate longer than broad. The species are solitary to subsocial, showing a primitive state of social behavior. They build earthen pot-like cells in burrows or in wood cavities (Das & Gupta 1989). Adults feed on nectar, however, the larvae are fed with small lepidopterous larvae but rarely with larvae of family Tenthredinidae (Craighead 1950; Srinivasan & Kumar 2010). Numerous taxonomic works have been done on potter wasps from Palearctic, Nearctic and various parts of the Oriental Region documenting about 3600 species (Pickett & Carpenter 2010). Nonetheless, knowledge on potter wasp fauna of Bhutan is scarce. Only two species, Delta pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775) and Pareumenes quadrispinosus (de Saussure, 1855) were reported (Srinivasan & Kumar 2010; Nguyen 2015a). In this paper, five genera and seven species are documented, of which six species are new records for Bhutan.

Material and Methods

A total of 31 specimens were studied from various districts in Bhutan (Fig. 1). The specimens were killed with ethyl acetate and observed under a stereoscopic microscope. Photographs were taken with a Nikon D5100 with an attached AF-S Micro Nikkor 40mm macro lens. Measurements were taken with a digital vernier caliper nearest to 0.01mm. Measurements refer to the total length (TL = Head + Mesosoma + Metasoma). Identifications are based on the keys and descriptions provided by Bingham (1897), Liu (1941), van der Vecht (1963), Srinivasan & Kumar (2010), Bodlah et al. (2012), Kumar (2012), Nugroho et al. (2013), Siddiqui et al. (2015) and Nguyen (2015a,b). The pinned and dried specimens are deposited in Sherubtse Natural History Museum, Sherubtse College, Royal University of Bhutan. Elevation above sea level (Alt.) are provided in meters (m). Latitudes and longitudes are provided in degrees as denoted in Garmin eTrex 10.








Results and Discussion


1. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941

(Image 1)

Pareumenes acutus Liu, 1941: 255 (key), 262, pl. 1 fig. 5, pl. 2 figs. 3 and 13 (in subgenus Pareumenes) – “South China”.

Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus; van der Vecht, 1963: 23 (China).

Diagnosis: Black; yellow head parts are: clypeus except apical margin, interantennal space extending up to anterior ocelli, ocular sinus, longitudinal mark on temple; yellow thorax parts are: pronotum swim bladder shaped covering nearly the whole of the pronotum, two parallel lines on mesoscutum, tegula except black dot in center, parategula, postscutellum posteriorly, a spot each on the anterior and posterior part on both sides of the propodeum, two lateral quadrate shape on scutellum; outer face side of antennal scape; yellow abdominal parts are: petiole apically interrupted in middle, two parallel lines on petiole subapically on sternum, apical transverse line on petiole on sternum, gastral tergite II posteriorly interrupted in middle, III-V terga apically, sternum II basally and, II-IV sterna laterally, tibiae and femora I, tibiae II and III in outer view; flavo-hyaline wing; propodeum with dentiform projection; sparsely punctate head and thorax; clypeus pyriform, convex and dentiform; cephalic foveae present; genal carina meeting on occiput; subdiscoidal vein very weakly sclerotized beyond second recurrent nervure; III tergite without apical reflexed extension.

Measurement: 1 female: 19.8mm.

Material examined: HYM/SNHM/001, 14.x.2015, 1 female, Tingtibi, Zhemgang (2708’33”N & 90041’30.84”E, 631m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Wim Klein.

Distribution: Bhutan (Loc.4), Myanmar, India, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam (Liu 1941; van der Vecht 1963; Srinivasan & Kumar 2010).

Note: New record for Bhutan.


2. Delta pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775)

(Image 2)

Vespa pyriformis Fabricius, 1775: 371 – “in China” (BMNH).

Delta pyriforme pyriforme; Gusenleitner, 1988: 184 (Thailand).

Diagnosis: Petiole lacks yellow apical band; pronotum and mesoscutum anteriorly yellow, the latter posteriorly black, petiole and basal third of tergite II reddish-brown; tergite II dark at base and subapically; remaining part of tergite II and visible parts of remaining terga yellow; transverse line on occiput yellow, elongated thick dark marking longitudinally on sternum II.

Measurements: 3 males: 23–26.2 mm; 1 female: 26.7mm.

Material examined: HYM/SNHM/002, HYM/SNHM/003 & HYM/SNHM/004,, 3 females, Doksum, Trashi Yangtse (27026’22.2”N & 91034’53.76”E, 864m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Phurpa Dorji; HYM/SNHM/005, 23.x.2015, 1 female, Menghugang, Mongar (27016’35.76”N & 9108’45.96”E, 762m), coll. Phurpa Dorji & Wim Klein.

Distribution: Bhutan (Loc.1 & Loc.3), India, Cambodia, China, Hawaii, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam (Bingham 1897; Krombein 1991; Srinivasan & Kumar 2010; Bodlah et al. 2012; Nugroho et al. 2013; Siddiqui et al. 2015).


3. Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787)

(Image 3)

Vespa esuriens Fabricius, 1787: 293 -India” (BMNH).

Delta esuriens; Castro and Dvořák, 2009: 296 (Israel).

Diagnosis: This species can be distinguished from other species by having posterior third of second and visible part of other gastral tergites yellow; apical part of gastral petiole with yellow band; small and slender body; mesoscutum apically black and posteriorly with red variegation and brown infumation on radial cell.

Measurements: 3 males: 17.7–20 mm; 3 females: 1722 mm.

Material examined: HYM/SNHM/006,, 1 female, HYM/SNHM/007,, 1 male, Doksum, Trashi Yangtse (27026’22.2”N & 91034’53.76”E, 864m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Phurpa Dorji; HYM/SNHM/008, 28.i.2015, 1 female; HYM/SNHM/009 & HYM/SNHM/010, 28.i.2015, 2 males, Toebirong Chhu, Wangdi Phodrang (27031’34.68”N & 89052’21.72”E, 1226m), coll. Tshering Nidup & party; HYM/SNHM/006, 09.x.2015, 1 female, Dhamdangra, Chhukha (26052’25.68”N & 89023’0.96”E, 310m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Wim Klein.

Distribution: Bhutan (Loc.1, Loc.7 & Loc.11), Arabia, India, Indonesia (Borneo, Java), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Laos, Mauritius, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam (Bingham 1897; Srinivasan & Kumar 2010; Bodlah et al. 2012; Kumar 2012: Nugroho et al. 2013; Siddiqui et al. 2015).

Note: New record for Bhutan.









4. Delta conoideum (Gmelin, 1790)

(Image 4)

Vespa conica Fabricius, 1787: 293 -China” (BMNH).

Delta conoideum; Gusenleitner, 1987: 269.

Diagnosis: Apical half of gastral tergite II and whole of the remaining tergites red; clypeus, lower half of frons and ocelli sinus yellow; antennal scape in front yellow; broad black band above between eyes; mesosoma and metasoma dark red but legs pale reddish; dark line on mesoscutum medially, base and middle of tergite II dark (tergite II interrupted medially); wing fuscohyaline.

Measurement: 2 females: 24–24.9 mm.

Material examined: HYM/SNHM/011 & HYM/SNHM/012, 07.x.2015, 2 females, Rinchending, Chhukha (26051’0.72”N & 89023’44.88”E, 405m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Wim Klein.

Distribution record: Bhutan (Loc. 13), India, Arabia, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam (Bingham 1897; Krombein 1991; Srinivasan & Kumar 2010; Nguyen 2015a).

Note: New record for Bhutan.


5. Eumenes gibbosus Nguyen, 2015

(Image 5)

Eumenes gibbosus Nguyen, 2015b: 565, female - Holotype female “Vietnam, Pa Co, Mai Chau, Hoa Binh(IEBR).

Diagnosis: Female: Black with the following parts orange-yellow: spot between antennae; Following parts orange: two oblique lines on base of clypeus at margins (only in two females), short line at vertex behind eye, irregular shaped band on pronotum, transverse line on metanotum, apical band on terga I & II, sterna I & II, spot on tergum I laterally, outer margins of tegula, fore & mid tibia fully from outer view; wings dark brown, slightly infuscate and veins blackish.

Male: Similar but the following parts different: longer orange-yellow line between antennae; clypeus black (two males have orange-yellow marking at base emarginated medially, one male with orange-yellow marking subapically and medially, one male with combined characters of above but basal marking emarginated deeply with irregular shape.

Measurement: 4 males: 9.68–11.47 mm; 6 females: 9.47–12.00 mm.

Materials examined: HYM/SNHM/013, 15.x.2015, 1 female, Wangdigang, Zhemgang (27014’13.92”N & 90036’46.8”E, 1091m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Wim Klein; HYM/SNHM/014,17.x.2015, 1 female, Dechen Pelrithang, Bumthang (27031’1.92”N & 90048’3.96”E, 2483m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Wim Klein; HYM/SNHM/015,, 1 female, Chuzomsa, Wangdi Phodrang (27030’19.44”N & 89057’37.44”E, 1362m), coll. Wim Klein; HYM/SNHM/016 & HYM/SNHM/017, 2 females, 26.x.2015, HYM/SNHM/018, HYM/SNHM/019, HYM/SNHM/020 & HYM/SNHM/021, 26.x.2015, 4 males, Kappatapsa, Wangdi Phodrang (27042’38.88”N & 89045’54”E, 1476m), coll. Phurpa Dorji & Wim Klein; HYM/SNHM/022, 06.x.2015, 1 female, Chapcha, Chhukha (2709’1.8”N & 89032’28.68”E, 2264m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Wim Klein.

Distribution: Bhutan (Loc.5, Loc.6, Loc.8, Loc.9 & Loc.12), Vietnam (Nguyen 2015b).

Note: New record for Bhutan and only the report of this species outside of Vietnam after its original description.


6. Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963

(Image 6)

Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963: 6, figs. 1b-c, female, male - “Deiyannewela, Kandy, Ceylon” (NHMB).

Diagnosis: Female: Propodeum without a tooth on each side; body with yellow, black and brown markings; Yellow parts are: broad transverse mark at the base of clypeus, interrupted oblique mark at pronotum, outer margin of tegula, interrupted transverse line on scutellum apically, lamellar spines of propodeum apically, fore tibia apically, mid tibia wholly, hind tibia basally, fore and mid femur apically, thin transverse band at apex of terga I & II; propodeum and petiole apically red; tarsi brown; wings slightly infumated; mandibles and antennal scape black.

Male: similar to female but clypeus wholly yellow; mandibles with prominent yellow marking; antennal scape yellow in outer view.

Measurement: 6 males: 6.90–8.49 mm; 2 females: 7.29–7.63 mm.

Materials examined: HYM/SNHM/023, 28.i.2015, 1 male, Toebirong Chhu, Wangdi Phodrang (27031’33.96”N & 89052’21.72”E, 1226m), coll. Tshering Nidup & party; HYM/SNHM/024 & HYM/SNHM/025, 12.x.2015, 2 males, Tsholingkhar, Tsirang (2700’27”N & 9005’54.96”E, 1159m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Wim Klein; HYM/SNHM/026 & HYM/SNHM/027, 08.x.2015, 2 females, HYM/SNHM/028, HYM/SNHM/029 & HYM/SNHM/030, 08.x.2015, 3 males, Pekashing, Chhukha (26049’59.88”N & 89027’1.011”E, 293m), coll. Tshering Nidup & Wim Klein.

Distribution: Bhutan (Loc.7, Loc.10 & Loc.14), India, Nepal, Sri Lanka (van der Vecht 1963; Kumar et al. 2013).

Note: New record for Bhutan.


7. Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897

(Image 7)

Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897: 332 (key), 333, female – “Burma (Pegu Hills); Tenasserim” (NHM).

Diagnosis: Black; pubescence white; wings fuscohyaline with darker at the costal margin; legs black; head, thorax and abdomen punctate, thinly pubescent; front and vertex coarsely punctate; tegula glabrous; mesoscutum with two parallel impressed lines on disc; scutellum with longitudinal groove medially; densely punctate petiole on broadened region bears obtuse longitudinal carina medially above.

Measurement: 1 male: 15.22mm.

Materials examined: HYM/SNHM/031, 15.xi.2014, 1 male, Radhi, Trashigang (27021’56.88”N & 91043’59.52”E, 1763m), coll. Tshering Nidup, Thinley Gyeltshen & Phurpa Dorji.

Distribution: Bhutan (Loc.2); India: Sikkim (Dover & Rao 1922); Burma: Pegu Hills, Tenasserim, Vietnam (Bingham, 1897; Nguyen et al. 2014).

Note: New record for Bhutan.





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