Additions to the grasses (Poaceae) of Telangana from Kawal Tiger Reserve, Adilabad District, India

Alok Chorghe 1, K. Chandra Mohan 2, P.S. Annamma 3, M. Bhanja 4 & E. Venkatesh 5


1,2,3 Botanical Survey of India, Deccan Regional Centre, Hyderabad Telangana 500048, India

4 Telangana Forest Department, Aranya Bhavan, Hyderabad, Telangana 500004, India

5 Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana 500007, India

1 (corresponding author), 2, 3, 4, 5





Editor: B. Ravi Prasad Rao, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapuramu, India. Date of publication: 26 July 2015 (online & print)


Manuscript details: Ms # o3879 | Received 11 November 2013 | Final received 07 July 2015 | Finally accepted 10 July 2015


Citation: Chorghe, A., K.C. Mohan, P.S. Annamma, M. Bhanja & E. Venkatesh (2015). Additions to the grasses (Poaceae) of Telangana from Kawal Tiger Reserve, Adilabad District, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(9): 7589–7594;


Copyright: © Chorghe et al. 2015. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.


Funding: Botanical Survey of India & Telangana Forest Department.


Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.


Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to the Telangana Forest Department for providing logistic support, Dr. P. Singh, Director, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata for facilities, Dr. P. Venu, Scientist-G, Botanical Survey of India, Hyderabad for support and also Dr. P.V. Prasanna, Scientist-F, Botanical Survey of India, Hyderabad for valuable comments and for going through the manuscript.




Kawal Tiger Reserve, located between 19015’–19020’N & 78032’–79012’E in Adilabad District of Telangana State, is spread in an area of 893km2. The reserve is one of the recently declared tiger reserves (in April 2012). It has a dry deciduous forest type with several small grasslands. In our recent field survey, we could collect three grass specimens, which on critical study were identified as Dimeria orissae Bor, Iseilema holei Haines and Spodiopogon rhizophorus (Steud.) Pilger. A perusal of the literature revealed that these species were not reported from Telangana (Bor 1960; Pullaiah et al. 1992; Pullaiah 1997; Pullaiah & Karuppusamy 2008; Reddy et al. 2008; Kabeer & Nair 2009) and hence reported as new distributional records for Telangana. Each species is provided with a detailed description and images to facilitate identification.

Genus Dimeria R. Br., represented by 39 species in India (Kabeer & Nair 2009), has three species in Telangana (Pullaiah 1997). Dimeria orissae Bor is reported only from Odisha and Tamil Nadu (Bor 1960; Karthikeyan et al. 1989; Kabeer & Nair 2009).



Dimeria orissae

Bor in Kew Bull. 1952: 579. 1952 & Grass. Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 142. 1960; S. Moulik, Grass. & Bamb. India 1: 283. 1997 (Images 1a; 2).

Tufted annuals. Culms erect, 25–60 cm high, nodes hairy. Leaf blades linear-lanceolate, 3–10 × 0.3–0.5 cm, sparsely tubercule-based hairy; ligules truncate, membranous, 0.5mm long; leaf sheaths 1–3 cm long. Racemes 2–3, 3–6 cm long; peduncle up to 20cm long; rachis triquetrous, flat on back, 0.5–0.7 mm wide, winged, ciliate along margins. Spikelets elliptic-oblong, 4.2–4.7 × 0.5–0.7 mm, hairy; callus bearded; pedicel truncate, 0.25–0.3 mm. Lower glumes linear-lanceolate, 3.5–3.7 × 0.3–0.4 mm, acute at apex, ciliate, keeled throughout, keel narrowly winged just below the tip. Upper glumes linear-lanceolate, 4.2–4.5 × 0.5–0.6 mm, acute at apex, ciliate throughout, keeled, keel narrowly winged just below the tip. Florets 2, epaleate, lower one barren, upper bisexual. Lower lemma oblong, hyaline, 1.7–2 × 0.1–0.2mm. Upper lemma linear-lanceolate, 3.2–3.5 × 0.8–1 mm, hyaline, cleft at apex into 2 lobes, awn 11–15 mm long. Anthers 2, 0.75 mm. Caryopsis linear, 2mm long.

Specimens examined: BSID 3933, 26.x.2013, Indanpalli Range, Kawal Tiger Reserve, Telangana, India (19010’35.3”N & 78051’47.9”E) elevation at 231m, coll. Alok Chorghe, P.S. Annamma & Chandra Mohan; BSID 3962, 27.x.2013, Thadlapet Range (19005’39.3”N & 79006’09.1”E) at 194m, coll. Alok Chorghe, P. S. Annamma & Chandra Mohan (Image 5).

Flowering & Fruiting: September–October.

Habitat: Grassy patches

Occurrence: Rare.

Distribution: Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and now from Telangana.

Genus Iseilema Andersson is represented by seven species in India, and three in Telangana. Iseilema holei Haines was previously reported from Bihar (Haines 1924) and Maharashtra (Naik 1998).








Iseilema holei

Haines, Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1055, 1924; Bor, Grass. Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan 188. 1960 (Images 1b; 3)

Perennials. Culms robust, tufted, 100–150 cm high; nodes bearded; internodes purplish. Leaf blades linear-lanceolate, 20–50 × 0.3–0.5 cm, flat, acute at apex, glabrous, sparsely ciliate at base; ligules ciliate, 2mm long; leaf sheaths 5–10 cm long, keeled, glabrous, long ciliate at mouth. Inflorescence a dense panicle, terminal and axillary, subtended by spathe and spatheole, spathe 2–5 cm long, spatheole 0.9–1.2 cm long, tuberculate. Racemes solitary, bear three heteromorphous spikelets; lower four involucral spikelets male, one fertile sessile spikelet and two male pedicelled spikelets; peduncle 3–4 mm long, hairy, tuberculate; rachis carrying sessile spikelet 1.2mm long, sparsely hairy. Involucral spikelets lanceolate, 3.7–4.5 × 0.7–1 mm, scabrid throughout, sparsely hairy; pedicel 0.7–1 × 0.2–0.3 mm, hairy above. Lower glumes lanceolate; 3.7–4.5 × 0.7–1 mm, scabrid, 5-nerved, 2-keeled, sparsely tuberculate hairy on keels, apex truncate. Upper glumes lanceolate, 3.6–4.2 × 0.6–0.8 mm, glabrous, 3-nerved, 2-keeled, keels winged, wings hairy. Upper lemmas linear-lanceolate, 2.5–3 × 0.2–0.3 mm, hyaline. Stamens 3, anthers 1.2–1.4 mm long. Sessile spikelets linear-lanceolate, 3.5–4 × 0.8 mm, broader at base and narrowed at apex, awned. Lower glumes linear-lanceolate, 3.5–4 × 0.7–0.8 mm, 4-nerved, 2-keeled, apex truncate, scabrid on upper half and glabrous on lower half. Upper glumes linear lanceolate, 3.4–3.7× 0.6–0.8 mm, acuminate to arsitate at apex, arista up to 0.5mm long, 3-nerved, 2-keeled. Upper lemmas linear, 2.4–3 × 0.1–0.2 mm, awned; awn geniculate, 13–14 mm long. Upper paleas, oblong-lanceolate, 1.8–2 × 0.7–0.8 mm, hyaline nerveless, apex truncate. Caryopsis oblong lanceolate, 1.8–2 × 0.8–1 mm. Pedicelledspikelets linear-lanceolate, 4.3–5.5 × 0.5–0.8 mm, scabrid throughout; pedicel 2mm long, ciliate. Lower glumes linear-lanceolate, 4–5.3 × 0.6–1 mm, acute at apex, 9-nerved, scabrid, tuberculate on nerves. Upper glumes linear-lanceolate, 4–5 × 0.5–0.7 mm, acuminate at apex, 3-nerved, glabrous, scabrid and tuberculate on nerves. Upper lemmas linear-lanceolate, 3.8–4 × 0.2–0.3 mm, hyaline.

Specimen examined: BSID 3937, 26.x.2013, Indanpalli Range, Kawal Tiger Reserve, Telangana, India (19010’43.1”N & 78051’47.3”E) elevation at 246m, coll. Alok Chorghe, P.S. Annamma & Chandra Mohan (Image 6).

Flowering & Fruiting: September–October.

Habitat: On moist grassy patches.

Occurrence: Rare.

Distribution: Bihar, Maharashtra, and now from Telangana.

Genus Spodiopogon Trin., is represented by five species in India (Bor 1960; Kabeer & Nair 2009) and hitherto not reported from Telangana. Spodiopogon rhizophorus (Steud.) Pilger is distributed in Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, NagarHaveli, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu states (Karthikeyan et al. 1989; Kabeer & Nair 2009).






Spodiopogon rhizophorus

(Steud.) Pilger in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam.ed. 2. 14e: 119. 1940; Bor, Grass. Burma, Ceylon, India & Pakistan: 246. 1960; S. Moulik, Grass. Bamb. India 1: 326. t. 66. 1997. Andropogon rhizophorus Steud., Syn.Pl.Glumac.1:381. 1854 (Images 1c,d; 4)

Tufted annuals. Culms erect, 90–150 cm high; nodes glabrous, internodes purplish. Leaf blades broadly lanceolate, 10–25 × 2–4 cm, acute at apex, apex aristate, sparsely tuberculate hairy on both sides, margin scabrid, pseudopetiolate, pseudopetiole 1–12 cm long; ligules membranous; leaf sheath 6–15 cm long, apex auricled. Panicle densely villous, 6–13 × 2–4 cm, with spathe like sheath below panicle; peduncle 10–20 cm long. Racemes 1–3 per node, 1–4 cm long. Spikelets paired, one sessile, other pedicelled, homogamous, pedicelled spikelets smaller in size. Sessile spikelets oblong-lanceolate, 4–5 × 1–1.5 mm, acute at apex, hairy throughout, hairs pinkish-white. Lower glumes oblong-lanceolate, 4–4.8 × 1.5–1.7 mm, acuminate at apex, 7–9 nerved, hairy, hairs up to 2mm long pinkish-white in colour. Upper glumes oblong-lanceolate, 3.9–4.5 × 2–2.2 mm, acuminate at apex, sometime saristate, arista up to 0.3mm long, 9–11-nerved, sparsely hairy. Florets 2, lower male and upper bisexual. Lower lemma soblong-lanceolate, 3–3.5 × 1.6–2 mm, hyaline, truncate at apex, minute hairy. Lower paleas linear-lanceolate, 4–4.4 × 0.5–0.6 mm, hyaline, acute at apex minute hairy. Upper lemmas lanceolate, 2.8–3 × 0.7–0.8 mm, chartaceous, 2-lobed, 1-nerved, lobes acuminate at apex, awn arise from sinus, geniculate, 6–8 mm long. Upper paleas oblong-lanceolate, 2–2.3 ×0.7–0.8 mm, hyaline, chartaceous, obtuse at apex, sparsely hairy, 5–6-nerved. Stamens 2, anthers 2.3–2.7 mm long. Ovary elliptic-oblong, 0.5 × 0.1 mm; stigma plumose, 2.6–2.8 mm long. Caryopsis elliptic-lanceolate, 1–1.2 × 0.2–0.3 mm.

Specimens examined: BSID 3987, 28.x.2013, Jannaram Range, Kawal Tiger Reserve, Telangana, India (19009’28.0”N & 079004’47.5”E) elevation at 250m, coll. Alok Chorghe, P.S. Annamma & Chandra Mohan (Image 7).

Flowering & Fruiting: September-October.

Habitat: Under forest cover

Occurrence: Occasional.

Distribution: Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Nagar Haveli, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and now from Telangana.







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